3.9 Life Cycle Cost Analysis
All life cycle cost analysis work focusing on particular items should consider the impact on other related systems. In other words, it should be a comprehensive effort balancing the impacts on all aspects of the building design.
Methods for performing life cycle cost analysis are discussed in Chapter 1: General Requirements, Life Cycle Costing. This section describes: which architectural and interior systems require life cycle cost analysis: the method to be used for analysis: the number of alternatives to be considered: and the factors to be considered. These requirements vary according to the size and type of building. For individual projects, the Scope of Work may define a different level of analysis than recommended in the Facilities Standards.
The following systems are to be analyzed depending on the size of the facility. For each system, the factors relate to scale and complexity, and the number of alternatives to be considered.
Tunnels and Bridges. The analysis should consider the costs of the connection versus staff travel time on alternative circulation routes. Travel time can be based on actual contact information between agencies or on assumptions by the planning team. Other factors that cannot be calculated but should be considered in making the selection include climate conditions; security; and construction challenges. The analysis should be performed when connections are considered for small buildings. It is not necessary to perform analysis on any building with a high security classification or on large buildings.
Exterior Wall Construction and Finishes. The analysis shall consider construction costs, known upkeep, maintenance and replacement costs and schedules, thermal resistance effects on heat loss/gain and first cost impacts to HVAC system designs. Other factors that cannot be calculated but should be considered in making the selection include appearance, the ability to match the finish of expansion areas or replacement panels, resistance to moisture, freezing and ultraviolet light damage, seismic and wind resistance, source and manufacture availability and construction requirements.
Sun Control Devices. The analysis should consider: construction costs; solar gain reduction, HVAC system first costs, operating costs; maintenance and replacement costs; and utility costs compared with not providing sun control devices. As previously stated, sun control also relates to maximizing efficient use of natural daylight in the building.
Exterior Windows. The analysis should consider the construction costs, HVAC system first costs, solar transmission and heat gain and insulation characteristics. Other factors that cannot be calculated but should be considered in making the selection include the affect of color tones on the interior environment, exterior views into the building and security. Analysis should be performed on moderately sized and large buildings considering at least one alternative and at up to three alternatives for very large buildings.
Alternative Roof Systems. In typical projects, a life cycle cost analysis is not required. If a new technology is proposed that has a higher initial costs and probable long term cost savings, then an analysis should be used as part of the decision to utilize the new technology.
laboratory wing, Menlo Park, CA
Conveyance Systems. The selection and sizing of elevator and escalator systems must be performed as prescribed in the preceding section Selecting Conveyance Systems in this Chapter. No other life cycle cost analysis will be required for conveyance systems.
Interior Wall Systems. The analysis must consider the installation costs including any associated special ceiling, floor, power or communication cabling systems, cost of repairs or refinishing and the percent of the material that can be reused during remodels. The churn factor, or percent of the space disrupted by change within a given year, for space renovation should be established by the GSA region. Other factors that cannot be calculated but should be considered in making the selection include appearance, safety, disruption during moves, manufacturing availability for custom systems, acoustical separation, and security. Analysis should be performed on very large buildings considering at least one alternative.
Interior Protective Finishes. The analysis must consider the installation costs, known cleaning and upkeep costs, known replacement and refinishing costs, any increases in illumination levels because of reflectivity characteristics and remedial acoustical work. Other factors that cannot be calculated but should be considered in making the selection include appearance, safety, disruption during remodeling, ability for the material to be patched, and the release of vapors. The analysis should be performed on finishes covering large areas or high traffic areas.