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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Checklist For The Routine Inspection Of Buildings

Procedure code:

0180001S

Source:

Kansas State Historical Society - Historic Preservation Dept

Division:

General Requirements

Section:

Maintenance

Last Modified:

12/13/2012

Details:

Checklist For The Routine Inspection Of Buildings



CHECKLIST FOR THE ROUTINE INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS


INTRODUCTION:

All building materials deteriorate with age and exposure to the
weather.  Through routine inspection and cyclical maintenance, the
useful life span of a building and its historic fabric will be
greatly increased.  The principal reason for developing this
building inspection form is to advise building owners on the
maintenance of their properties.  The money invested in a building
is considerable and care and effort are required to preserve and
increase the value of the property.  Unfortunately, many building
owners use the "squeaky wheel" technique in their approach to
maintenance, doing little or nothing until failure occurs.  And
when it does the owner is hit with high repair bills and great
inconvenience.  The job of maintenance can be simplified if it is
done systematically instead of haphazardly.  Preventive maintenance
involves regular inspection of those parts of the building that are
most likely to get out of working order.  The accompanying
checklist is intended to help a building owner or manager identify
and keep an accurate record or inventory of the building's problems
to facilitate systematic repair and maintenance.

This procedure is a brief but comprehensive overall building
inspection.  Each of the areas addressed may have more extensive
inspection procedures which could be followed in the case of
specific problems.

EXTERIOR INSPECTION:

1.   ROOFS:

    A roof is all that stands between the interior of a building
    and the weather outside.  A neglected roof will result in
    higher costs from damages caused by leaks than a carefully
    maintained roof.  Roofing materials and elements should be
    inspected twice a year, before and after the harsh weather of
    winter, to determine maintenance needs.  The most common types
    of roof include gable, hip, hip-and-valley, gambrel, and flat
    or built-up roof.

    a.   Asphalt Shingles:  Pay particular attention to shingles
         on the ridge, hips, and at roof edges; they get the
         hardest wear.  Also watch for lumpiness that indicates a
         new roof has been applied over old shingles; all sorts of
         damage could be covered up.  Look for:

         1)   Mineral granules almost totally worn off shingles
         2)   Mineral granules collecting in gutters and base of
              downspouts
         3)   Edges of shingles look worn
         4)   Nails popping up
         5)   Roof looks new but lumpy
         6)   Mold or moss forming on shingles
         7)   Holes in the roof from guy cables, TV antennas etc.
         8)   Leading edge of roof damaged by ladders

    b.   Clay Tiles:  Clay tiles will weather well but are prone
         to breakage from mechanical shock, such as a falling tree
         limb or people walking on the tiles without protecting them.  Check for:  

         1)   Broken tiles
         2)   Missing tiles
         3)   Nails popping up
         4)   Mold or moss forming on tile

    c.   Slate:  Some slates are more durable than others, but a
         properly laid top quality slate should last a century or more (slate longevity varies depending on slate source).  Check
         for:

         1)   Broken slates
         2)   Missing slates
         3)   Slate flaking apart
         4)   Nails letting go
         5)   Slate particles collecting in valley flashing

    d.   Metal:  If the metal isn't copper, zinc, stainless steel, and other corrosion-resistant metal blends your primary task will
         be to fight rust by keeping the roof painted.  Check for:
         1)   Rust or corrosion spots
         2)   Signs of previous patch jobs
         3)   Punctures in metal
         4)   Joints and seams broken

    e.   Wood Shingles and Shakes:  For maximum roof life,
         shingles and shakes require proper air circulation
         underneath so they can dry after rain.  Therefore, they
         should be laid on open sheathing.  If you find that they
         are improperly laid, you can help them dry by providing
         adequate ventilation in your attic.  Look for:

         1)   Biological attack (moss or mold, insects, birds)
         2)   Cupping and warping
         3)   Deep cracks and splits
         4)   Wood has become unevenly thin from erosion

    f.   Built-up Roof:  The roof membrane of a built-up roof
         consists of one or more plies of roofing felt bonded
         together either by hot or cold applied roof coatings.
         Deterioration of the membrane produces areas of the
         surface of the roof where leaks can occur.  It is
         particularly difficult to diagnose leaks in flat roofs
         because water can enter at one point and migrate
         horizontally for long distance before leaking inside the
         building.  Check for:

         1)   Blisters or slits in the membrane
         2)   Ponding of water (or dried areas where ponding was)
         3)   Drain pipes are plugged
         4)   Drip edges are provided
         5)   Gravel covers roof well
         6)   Flashing are well positioned or seated
         7)   Trash build-up

g.      Membrane Roof:  A further development and evolution of a built-up roof
         is a membrane roof composed of rolls/sheets of materials such as 
         synthetic rubber, thermoplastics, or other man-made materials.
         Such roofs are often installed over a layer of rigid insulation.   These types
         of membrane roofs may not have a stone top layer.
         Also, these roof are often white or other reflective colors to reduce 
         solar heat gain and the urban heat island effect.
         Checklist is generally similar as noted in "f. Built-up Roof".

h.      Green Roof:  The "green roof" with a living plant material layer at the top surface 
         is typically a membrane roof as noted in "g." above, but with a very important  
         root-resisting and waterproof layer(s) to isolate the living plant material layer from layers below.
         For further reference see the links below from the Whole Building Design Guide:

 

http://www.wbdg.org/resources/greenroofs.php



2.   ROOFING ELEMENTS:

    a.   Projections:  Anything that breaks through the roof
         surface, such as a chimney or vent pipe, offers an
         entrance for water and so must be adequately flashed.
         Check that no projection or ornament is so weak or
         damaged that it could topple and smash roofing materials.
         Check for:

         1)   Proper flashing around projections
         2)   Weathering of mortar joints at chimneys
         3)   Loose mortar joints that admit water
         4)   Chimney leans
         5)   Loose and wobbly antennae
         6)   Loose lightning rods
         7)   Loose and wobbly weather vane

    b.   Galvanic Action:  Corrosion of metals can be caused by
         galvanic action.  Check for:

         1)   Ferrous metals touching dissimilar metals, such as
              galvanized nails in copper flashing

    c.   Cornice:  Roofs frequently fail first at the edges and
         admit water into the cornice.  Check for:

         1)   Moisture causing paint to peel on cornice,
              especially at the underside
         2)   Broken or missing cornice
         3)   Cracks and other damages

    d.   Underside of Roof:  Pay particular attention to
         projections and eaves.  Inspect on a rainy day to see if
         water stains are current or past problem.  Look for:

         1)   Water stains on soffit boards
         2)   Damaged soffit boards
         3)   Damaged fascia boards

    e.   Flashing:  Flashing is usually made of thin metal, such
         as copper, aluminum, or galvanized steel.  It should be
         installed completely around every protrusion through the
         roof, and at every joint where vertical wall intersects
         the roof.  Check for:

         1)   Loose, corroded, or broken flashing
         2)   Missing and uncaulked openings at the tops of
              flashing
         3)   Daubs of roof cement on flashing (They may hide
              leaks that have not been corrected)
         4)   Base flashing and counterflashing of vertical
              joints

    f.   Gutters and Leaders:  Leaking gutters can cause extensive
         damage to the entire building, not just the roof.  Pay
         special attention to built-in gutters which can feed
         hidden leaks directly to the cornice and down into the
         main structure.  Check for:

         1)   Gutters clogged with debris or ice
         2)   Gutters that are rusty or corroded
         3)   Gutters that are loose, tilted, or missing
         4)   Broken seams in metal linings of built-in gutters
         5)   Birds nests and roosting places

3.   EXTERIOR WALL MATERIAL:

    The accumulated effects of hot sun, wind, rain, hail, dust,
    winter snow, and ice over the years will weather even the best
    quality masonry wall and/ or siding.  Natural finishes,
    including paint, deteriorate and show signs of peeling and
    blistering.  Cracks develop as members weather and caulking
    and mortar joints give way to water penetration.  The
    following checklist will be useful in inspecting buildings on
    a regular basis to determine maintenance needs.

    a.   Masonry & Mortar:  The inspector should pay particular
         attention to loose mortar joints, cracks, stains and wet
         spots on the wall.

         1)   Cracks can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal,
              hairline or major.  Document the nature of the
              crack, explaining as best as possible the causes of
              the cracks. Note if cracks are running through just the mortar or also the masonry units.
         2)   Mortar:  Inspect mortar joints to determine if they
              are loose or missing and evaluate their condition
              as good, fair or poor.
         3)   Brick:  Check for stains, wet spots, bulges,
              spalling, efflorescence, and missing brick.
         4)   Stone:  Inspect stone work for wet spots, stains,
              spalling, bulges, and efflorescence.  For a
              comprehensive inspection checklist for stone, see
              04400-01-S.

    b.   Stucco/Plaster:  Inspect for:

         1)   Cracks, staining, loose stucco, soft spots,
              blisters or bulges, and falling stucco.

    c.   Siding, Shingles, and Sheathing:  Hot sun, wind, rain, hail, dust
         and winter snow and ice are the principal causes of
         damages to siding and sheathing.  Inspect siding, shingles, soffits
         and wood trim such as cornices for:

         1)   Cracked boards, loose boards, or broken boards
         2)   Rotted and missing members
         3)   Signs of veins of dirt (termite tunnels)

4.   EXTERIOR FINISHES:

    Finishes need to be renewed periodically by
    application of a fresh penetrating stain coat or a paint coat when wear begins
    to show.  There are many causes of poor paint wear.  Most
    common are vapor or condensation problems.  Other causes are
    rain or other water behind siding or shingles and also improperly applied
    priming coat.

    a.   Painting:  Inspect all finished surfaces for:

         1)   Signs of peeling, cracks, and alligatoring
         2)   Document the overall findings as good, fair, or
              poor

    b.   Decorative Elements:  Ornamental elements also undergo
         wear and tear.  Inspect not only the ornament but also
         its supports, such as anchors, for expansion due to rust.

         1)   Cast iron:  Inspect for rust, deterioration,
              corrosion, and loose and missing members
         2)   Stone/terra cotta:  Inspect for loose, eroded,
              spalled, and stained tiles
         3)   Wood:  Inspect for rot, moisture, cracks, missing
              and loose members

5.   FENESTRATION:

    Doors and windows constitute main sources of energy loss
    through air infiltration.  Energy losses can be reduced by
    weatherstripping.  Inspect to ensure that weatherstripping is
    properly installed and all sources of infiltration are in
    check.

    a.   Doors:  Inspect doors, frames, and weatherstripping.
         Check:

         1)   Door alignment
         2)   All parts for deterioration
         3)   All door hardware for proper operation

    b.   Windows:  Inspect windows for material soundness at sill,
         joint between sill and jamb, corners of bottom rail and
         muntins.  Check for:

         1)   Proper operation of all sash (including upper sash
              of double hung units)
         2)   Proper operation of hardware
         3)   Loose, cracked or missing glazing putty
         4)   Soundness of weatherstripping
         5)   Cracks and other damages to lintel
         6)   Rot and/or deterioration of wood framing

6.   EXTERIOR CEILINGS AND DECKS:

    a.   Porch:  Moisture problems in an exterior ceiling are
         indications of faulty drainage from the roof above.
         Inspect the roof to make sure water isn't entering the
         main structure of the building as well.  Check for:

         1)   Peeling paint and water stains on the ceiling
         2)   Rotted and warped boards in the deck
         3)   Damaged and/or loose steps and handrails
         4)   Rotted boards and other damages to ceiling
         5)   Cracks and other damages on a concrete floor
         6)   Spalling, cracks, loose and/or missing mortar
              joints on brick or stone

    b.   Wooden Supports:  Wood destroying insects and fungi can
         cause considerable damage to the wooden supports of
         exterior ceilings and decks.  Early detection of pests
         and decay can help building owners avoid expensive
         repairs.  Inspectors should pay particular attention to:

         1)   Molds and fungus
         2)   Wood rot and termite infestation
         3)   Seal of deck at foundation
         4)   Corrosion of iron fittings on members

    c.   Infestation:  Chemical treatment of the structure and
         adjacent soil will drive insects away.  No matter what
         protective measures are taken, a periodic inspection
         should be made at least every six months.  The existence
         of termites or infestation in older buildings with crawl
         space is difficult to detect because contact with the
         soil is usually direct and termite tubes are not evident.
         Inspection by professional exterminators is essential in
         such cases.  Check for:

         1)   The need of treatment for ants and other wood
              destroying insects
         2)   Termites
         3)   Damage and rot on all wood members

7.   GROUNDS:

    The ground should be properly graded to direct the flow of
    rainwater away from the building and from the lot to prevent
    standing water.  The property should always be checked after
    a heavy rain to see if it drains properly.

    a.   Driveways and Sidewalks:  Check for:

         1)   Safety hazards (heaves and depressions)
         2)   Cracks on and deterioration of paved material
         3)   Damages to and curb clearances
         4)   Oil stains and pools of water

    b.   Window Well:  Check for:

         1)   Leaks and standing water
         2)   Leaves and other debris
         3)   Other damages to window well material

    c.   Storm Drains:  Check for proper drainage and/or clogging
         of drain line.

    d.   Retaining Wall:  Check for:

         1)   Cracks, spalling from subflorescence and freezing
         2)   Leaning and Bulges
         3)   Loose, crumbling, and missing mortar joints

    e.   Foundation:  Inspect to ensure that there is no
         collection of leaves and other debris at the edges of the
         foundation and for proper drainage.  Check for:

         1)   Cracks, spalling from subflorescence and freezing
         2)   Leaning and Bulges
         3)   Loose, crumbling, and missing mortar joints

    f.   Landscape:  Check all landscape features eg. Trees,
         Bushes for diseased or dead parts.  Check if:

         1)   Trees overhang or touch building which cause damage
              or trash build-up
         2)   Creepers and vines are causing damage (paint
              peeling, joint deterioration etc.)
         3)   Plants holding water against structure
         4)   Tree roots damaging structure
         5)   Bare spots show in lawn and /or shrubs need pruning

8.   INTERIOR INSPECTION:

    BASEMENT AND CRAWL SPACE:  Foundation walls are subject to a
    wide variety of stresses and strains that cause concrete and
    other masonry to expand and contract.  This sometimes results
    in cracks, leaks or condensation problems.  Inspect to ensure
    that rainwater and other sources of moisture drain away from
    the building.  Check for dampness on surfaces and for mold on
    joists at the point where the first floor joists meet the
    foundation wall.

    a.   Load Bearing Masonry Wall:  Inspect load bearing walls
         for structural damages paying particular attention to the
         following:

         1)   Cracks caused by either structural movement or
              material shrinkage
         2)   Leaning and bulges
         3)   Loose/damp mortar joints and spalling
         4)   Wet spots, stains and water penetration
         5)   Insect/termite infestation and decay on wood
              members

    b.   Cast-in-Place Concrete Wall:  Look for:

         1)   Settlement, cracks, and leaning
         2)   Water penetration, wet spots, and stains
         3)   Moisture conditions (dampness etc.)
         4)   Insect/termite infestation and decay on wood
              members

    c.   Wood Joists & Beams:  Check for:

         1)   Sagging at the center of span
         2)   Springiness or vibration
         3)   Pronounced slope in one direction
         4)   Split at bottom of joist or beam
         5)   Floor squeaking and insect infestation/decay
         6)   Bearing on masonry
         7)   Bulging or sagging plaster ceiling
         8)   Overloading of joists and beams

    d.   Steel Beams/Concrete Deck:  Check for:

         1)   Deflection at midspan
         2)   Sloping floor
         3)   Corroded connections
         4)   Missing connections and connections bearing on
              masonry
         5)   Settlement effects, mechanical or exterior leakage

    e.   Reinforced Concrete Floor:  Check for:

         1)   Spalling and exposed reinforced steel
         2)   Wide, regularly spaced cracks in floor
         3)   Cracks near and parallel to masonry wall
         4)   Surface dusting and cracked concrete near columns

    f.   Masonry Floors:  Check for:

         1)   Leaks, cracks, and spalling
         2)   Alterations and new holes cut on floor for stairs,
              mechanical installations etc.
         3)   Efflorescence
         4)   Sidewalk vaults and subgrade storage
         5)   Crack at the crown of the arch and between
              supporting walls

    g.   Wood Floor:  Wood floors members bearing directly to the
         soil are susceptible to insect and fungus attack.  Check
         the underside of boards and floor joists for fungus,
         insect and or termite attack.  Look for:

         1)   Cracks and badly damaged boards
         2)   Twisted boards
         3)   Squeaking
         4)   If floor boards need refinishing

    h.   Carpet:  Inspect for:

         1)   Frayed edges
         2)   Damaged portions
         3)   Stains and worn out areas

    i.   Ceramic Tile:  Inspect for:

         1)   Adherence and grout in joints
         2)   Loose joints
         3)   Splits and cracks
         4)   Missing tiles

    j.   Interior Wall Finishes:  Includes but not is limited to
         plaster/stucco, gypsum board, wood, and wallpaper.

         1)   Push on suspect wall surfaces to check for
              looseness
         2)   Check for signs of dampness (this suggests leaks,
              either from the roof or internal pipes)
         3)   Inspect for cracks, bulges, peeling, blistering and
              mildew

    k.   Ceiling Finishes:  May be plaster/stucco, gypsum board,
         wood, wallpaper, or any other material.  Specify this
         other material in your inspection record sheet.  Check
         for:

         1)   Signs of damp plaster on ceilings (this suggests
              leaks from the roof or plumbing and mechanical
              pipes)
         2)   Loose plaster, cracks and bulges
         3)   Blistering and peeling

    l.   Interior Decorative Masonry:  This includes window sills,
         walls, wainscot, and floors.  Check for:

         1)   Dullness of surfaces
         2)   Stains, dampness, and spalling

    m.   Fireplace:  Inspect active fireplaces thoroughly for fire
         safety, material soundness, and structural stability.
         Check:

         1)   Connection with flues
         2)   If damper is operable
         3)   If the flue is lined with a clay-tile liner to
              prevent fire and fumes leakage into the building
         4)   If the flue is unobstructed all the way to the roof
         5)   If the fire box has a firebrick liner

    n.   Metal Surfaces:  Brass, cast iron, and bronze.  Inspect
         all exposed ornamental metal trim.  Check for:

         1)   Built-up dirt, stain and rust
         2)   Corrosion and cracked surfaces

    o.   Stairs:  (refers to wooden stairs) Check for:

         1)   Secureness of all railings
         2)   Gaps between treads, risers and stringers
         3)   Stair pulling away from the wall
         4)   Looseness or other damage to balustrades
         5)   Looseness and other damage to newel post
         6)   Irregular riser-tread ratios

    p.   Interior Doors and Wood Trim:  Check for:

         1)   Proper door alignment, fit and operation
         2)   Presence of all door hardware
         3)   Proper operation of all locks
         4)   Deterioration of hinges and pins
         5)   Condition of finish and other problems

    q.   Interior Windows and Wood Trim:  Check for:

         1)   Proper window alignment, fit and operation
         2)   Presence and functioning of all window hardware
         3)   Proper operation of locks, hinges and pins
         4)   Signs of water leakage at frames
         5)   Movement of sash up and down the frame
         6)   Seals around window panes
         7)   Condition of finish and record other problems

    r.   Kitchen Cabinets/Counters:  Inspect cabinets and counters
         to ensure that all drawers and doors are properly hung
         and secure, and that no movements are restricted and to
         ensure that all units are securely anchored to walls and
         floor.  Check for:

         1)   Missing handles and hardware
         2)   Badly worn or stained countertops
         3)   Condition of finish

9.   MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL:

    a.   Electrical:  Ascertain that there are sufficient power
         circuits to run all the appliance and equipment the owner
         uses.  Remember that older buildings were not originally
         wired to take care of the many electrical appliances and
         the equipment used today.  Check:

         1)   The condition of incoming service wires and
              supports
         2)   The operation of all exterior outlets and switches
         3)   Whether all exterior plugs and kitchen, bathroom, wet area plugs as required by code are fitted with ground
              fault connectors
         4)   Whether fuses or circuit breakers trip frequently
         5)   Whether an electrician has periodically checked all
              aluminum wire connections
         6)   Whether power is brought in overhead rather than
              underground (if so, look for trees or other hazards
              that could cause problems)

    b.   Plumbing and Mechanical Systems:  Note which types of
         heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems the
         building presently has.  Inspect the furnaces, ducts,
         registers, and radiators.

         1)   Look for any obvious signs of deterioration,
              damage, stains and rot
         2)   Inspect the water supply and waste pipes for rust
              and leaks
         3)   Has the local gas company tested gas lines for
              leaks (if not, have them do so).

10.  ATTIC:

    a.   Condensation occurs in the attic principally because of
         easy pathways for moisture to migrate from the occupied
         areas, or because of inadequate ventilation.  The
         ventilators (louvers) in the unfinished and unconditioned attic should remain open to
         provide circulation of air throughout the year.  Check
         for:

         1)   Any signs of roof or flashing leaks on rafters and
              insulation
         2)   Signs of mildew on underside of roof boards
         3)   Smoke or water leaks or breaks in the mortar joints
              of the chimney
         4)   Straightness and sound condition of roof rafters
         5)   Adequacy and condition of insulation
         6)   Nests and blockages of ventilation openings
         7)   Operation of vent and/ or attic fan

                         END OF SECTION
 


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