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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Removing Beverage Stains From Concrete

Procedure code:

0371006R

Source:

Hstrc Concrete: Investigation & Rpr/Pre-Conf Training - 1989

Division:

Concrete

Section:

Concrete Cleaning

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Removing Beverage Stains From Concrete



REMOVING BEVERAGE STAINS FROM CONCRETE


THE CLEANING OR REMOVAL OF STAINS FROM CONCRETE MAY INVOLVE THE
USE OF LIQUIDS, DETERGENTS OR SOLVENTS WHICH MAY RUN OFF ON
ADJACENT MATERIAL, DISCOLOR THE CONCRETE OR DRIVE THE STAINS DEEPER
INTO POROUS CONCRETE.  USE THE PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED
HERE ONLY FOR THE COMBINATIONS OF DIRT/STAIN AND CONCRETE SPECIFIED.


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on removing beverage
         stains (such as tea, coffee, soft drinks, beer, wine and
         liquor) from concrete by scrubbing or by using chemical
         solvents in the form of a poultice.

    B.   Safety Precautions:

         1.   DO NOT save unused portions of stain-removal
              materials.

         2.   DO NOT store any chemicals in unmarked containers.

         3.   EXCELLENT VENTILATION MUST BE PROVIDED WHEREVER ANY
              SOLVENT IS USED.  USE RESPIRATORS WITH SOLVENT
              FILTERS.

         4.   No use of organic solvents indoors should be
              allowed without substantial air movement.  Use only
              spark-proof fans near operations involving
              flammable liquids.

         5.   Provide adequate clothing and protective gear where
              the chemicals are indicated to be dangerous.

         6.   Have available antidote and accident treatment
              chemicals where noted.

    C.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).

    D.   For additional information on poulticing, see 04455-02-R.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MATERIALS

    NOTE:  Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
    name.  This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
    the same chemical sold under its chemical name.  The grade of
    purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
    for stain removal work, and these products should be purchased
    when available, as they tend to be less expensive.  Common
    names are indicated below by an asterisk (*).

    A.   Materials for Washing:

         1.   Job-prepared Hypochlorite:  Made by user, see
              03710-01-S for guidance on preparation.

              a.   Calcium Hypochlorite (CaCl2O2):

                   1)   A white powder used especially as a
                        bleaching agent and disinfectant.

                   2)   Other chemical or common names include
                        Chlorinated calcium oxide; Bleaching
                        powder*; Calcium oxymuriate*; Chloride of
                        lime*; Chlorinated lime*; Hypochlorite of
                        lime*; Oxymuriate of lime*.

                   3)   Potential Hazards:  CORROSIVE TO FLESH;
                        FLAMMABLE (WHEN IN CONTACT WITH ORGANIC
                        SOLVENTS).

                   4)   Available from chemical supply house, dry
                        cleaning supply distributor, drugstore or
                        pharmaceutical supply distributor,
                        janitorial supply distributor, swimming
                        pool supply distributor, or water and
                        sanitation supply distributor.

              b.   Sodium Orthophosphate:

                   1)   Other chemical or common names include
                        Tribasic sodium phosphate; Trisodium
                        orthophosphate; Trisodium phosphate;
                        TSP*; Phosphate of soda*.

                   2)   Potential Hazards:  CORROSIVE TO FLESH.

                   3)   Available from chemical supply house,
                        grocery store or supermarket or hardware
                        store.

         -OR-

         2.   Javelle Water:  Made by user, see 03710-02-S for
              guidance on preparation.

              a.   Calcium Hypochlorite (see 2.01 A.1.a. above)

              b.   Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3):

                   1)   A sodium salt of carbonic acid used
                        especially in making soaps and chemicals,
                        in water softening, in cleaning and
                        bleaching and in photography; A
                        hygroscopic crystalline anhydrous
                        strongly alkaline salt.

                   2)   Other chemical or common names include
                        Carbonate of soda*; Sal soda*; Soda*;
                        Soda ash*; Washing soda*.

                   3)   Available from chemical supply house,
                        grocery store or supermarket, hardware
                        store, paint store, or water and
                        sanitation supply distributor.

    B.   Materials for Poulticing:

         1.   Glycerol (C3H8O3):

              a.   A sweet syrupy hygroscopic trihydroxy alcohol
                   usually obtained by the saponification of fats
                   and used especially as a solvent and
                   plasticizer.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Glycerine; Glyceryl hydroxide; Glycyl alcohol;
                   1,2,3-propanetriol; Propenyl alcohol.

              c.   Potential Hazards:  FLAMMABLE.

              d.   Available from chemical supply house, drug
                   store or hardware store.

         2.   Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H8O):

              a.   A volatile flammable alcohol used especially
                   as a solvent and rubbing alcohol.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Dimethyl carbinol; Isopropanol; 2-propanol.

              c.   Available from chemical supply house, dry
                   cleaning supply distributor, drug store,
                   hardware store, paint store or printer's
                   supply distributor.

         3.   Cotton wadding

         4.   Mineral water

         5.   Clean dry towels for blotting the area after
              treatment

    C.   Clean, potable water

    D.   Accessible source of water, soap and towels for washing
         and rinsing in case of emergencies associated with the
         use of chemicals

2.02 EQUIPMENT

    A.   Poulticing Equipment:

         1.   Glass or ceramic container for mixing the solution

         2.   Wooden utensil for stirring the ingredients

    B.   Wood or plastic spatula

    C.   Stiff bristle brushes (non-metallic)


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 PREPARATION

    A.   Protection:

         1.   Provide adequate wash solutions (i.e. water, soap
              and towels) before starting the job.

         2.   Whenever acid is used, the surface should be
              thoroughly rinsed with water as soon as its action
              has been adequate.  Otherwise it will continue
              etching the concrete even though the stain is gone.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    NOTE:  DO NOT TRY MORE THAN ONE TREATMENT ON A GIVEN AREA
    UNLESS THE CHEMICALS USED FROM PRIOR TREATMENT HAVE BEEN
    WASHED AWAY.

    A.   Wash the Stain:

         1.   Using a stiff bristle brush, scrub the surface with
              hot soapy water and rinse.

         2.   If staining remains, scrub with either a sodium
              hypochlorite solution or Javelle water.  For
              guidance on making job-prepared hypochlorite, see
              03710-01-S.  For guidance on making javelle water,
              see 03710-02-S.

              a.   Before use, dilute 1 part of the commercial
                   solution of laundry bleach (5% sodium
                   hypochlorite) or 1 part of Javelle water with
                   6 parts of water.

              b.   DO NOT MIX BLEACH SOLUTION WITH JAVELLE WATER.

         3.   Thoroughly rinse with surface with clean, clear
              water and allow to dry.

         -OR-

    B.   Poultice the Stain (for additional guidance on
         poulticing, see 04455-02-R):

         1.   Mix 1 part glycerol in 4 parts water.

              -OR-

              For a faster acting solution, mix 1 part glycerol,
              2 parts isopropyl alcohol and 4 parts water.

         2.   Soak bandage of cotton wadding in the mixture.

         3.   Apply the bandage to the stained surface and allow
              to dry.

         4.   Using a wooden spatula, remove the dried bandage
              from the surface.

         5.   Thoroughly rinse the surface with clean, clear
              water and allow to dry.

         6.   Repeat the process as necessary to achieve the
              desired level of cleanliness.

                         END OF SECTION