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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Poulticing Ink Stains From Concrete

Procedure code:

0371024R

Source:

Hstc Concrete: Investigation & Rpr/Pre-Conf Training - 1989

Division:

Concrete

Section:

Concrete Cleaning

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Poulticing Ink Stains From Concrete



POULTICING INK STAINS FROM CONCRETE


THE CLEANING OR REMOVAL OF STAINS FROM CONCRETE MAY INVOLVE THE
USE OF LIQUIDS, DETERGENTS OR SOLVENTS WHICH MAY RUN OFF ON
ADJACENT MATERIAL, DISCOLOR THE CONCRETE OR DRIVE THE STAINS DEEPER
INTO POROUS CONCRETE.  USE THE PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED
HERE ONLY FOR THE COMBINATIONS OF DIRT/STAIN AND CONCRETE SPECIFIED.


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on removing various
         types of ink stains from concrete by poulticing.

    B.   Safety Precautions:

         1.   DO NOT save unused portions of stain-removal
              materials.

         2.   DO NOT store any chemicals in unmarked containers.

         3.   EXCELLENT VENTILATION MUST BE PROVIDED WHEREVER ANY
              SOLVENT IS USED.  USE RESPIRATORS WITH SOLVENT
              FILTERS.

         4.   No use of organic solvents indoors should be
              allowed without substantial air movement.  Use only
              spark-proof fans near operations involving
              flammable liquids.

         5.   Provide adequate clothing and protective gear where
              the chemicals are indicated to be dangerous.

         6.   Have available antidote and accident treatment
              chemicals where noted.

    C.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MATERIALS

    NOTE:  Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
    name.  This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
    the same chemical sold under its chemical name.  The grade of
    purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
    for stain removal work, and these products should be purchased
    when available, as they tend to be less expensive.  Common
    names are indicated below by an asterisk (*).

    A.   Use the following solvents depending on the type of ink
         stain:

         1.   For Ordinary Writing Ink Stains:  

              Sodium Perborate:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Perborax*.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE (WHEN
                   IN CONTACT WITH ORGANIC SOLVENTS).

              c.   Available from chemical supply house,
                   drugstore or pharmaceutical supply
                   distributor, grocery store or supermarket.

         2.   For Synthetic Dye Ink and Indelible Ink Stains:

              Ammonium Hydroxide:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include Ammonia
                   water*; Aqua ammonia*; Household ammonia*.

              b.   Potential hazards:  TOXIC; MAY IRRITATE THE
                   EYES.

              c.   Available from chemical supply house, grocery
                   store or pharmaceutical supply distributor, or
                   hardware store.

              -OR-

              Javelle Water:  (Made by user). See 03710-02-S for
              materials, equipment and procedures for preparing
              Javelle Water.

              -OR-

              Calcium Hypochlorite:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Chlorinated calcium oxide; Bleaching powder*;
                   Calcium oxymuriate*; Chloride of lime*;
                   Chlorinated lime*; Hypochlorite of lime*;
                   Oxymuriate of lime*.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  CORROSIVE TO FLESH;
                   FLAMMABLE (WHEN IN CONTACT WITH ORGANIC
                   SOLVENTS).

              c.   Available from chemical supply house, dry
                   cleaning supply distributor, drugstore or
                   pharmaceutical supply distributor, janitorial
                   supply distributor, swimming pool supply
                   distributor, or water and sanitation supply
                   distributor.

              -OR-

              Potassium Chloride:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Chloride of potash*; Muriate of potash*;
                   Sylvite*.

              b.   Available from chemical supply store,
                   drugstore or pharmaceutical supply
                   distributor.

              -AND-

              Potassium Hypochlorite:

              a.   Potential Hazards:  CORROSIVE TO FLESH.

              b.   Available from chemical supply house or
                   hardware store.

         3.   For Prussian Blue Ink Stains:  Ammonium Hydroxide
              (see 2.01 A.2. above)

         4.   For Black Ink Stains:  Scouring powder, strong soap
              solution or detergent

    B.   Cotton wadding for bandage

    C.   Mineral water

    D.   Plastic sheeting

    E.   Clean dry towels for blotting the area after treatment

    F.   Masking tape

    G.   Clean, potable water

    H.   Accessible source of water, soap and towels for washing
         and rinsing in case of emergencies associated with the
         use of chemicals

2.02 EQUIPMENT

    A.   Glass or ceramic container for mixing the solution

    B.   Wooden utensil for stirring the ingredients

    C.   Wood or plastic spatula

    D.   Enameled shallow pan

    E.   Rubber or plastic buckets or stoneware jar


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 PREPARATION

    A.   Protection:

         1.   Provide adequate wash solutions (i.e. water, soap
              and towels) before starting the job.

         2.   Whenever acid is used, the surface should be
              thoroughly rinsed with water as soon as its action
              has been adequate.  Otherwise it will continue
              etching the concrete even though the stain is gone.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    NOTE:  DO NOT TRY MORE THAN ONE TREATMENT ON A GIVEN AREA
    UNLESS THE CHEMICALS USED FROM PRIOR TREATMENT HAVE BEEN
    WASHED AWAY.

    A.   For Ordinary Writing Inks:

         1.   Dissolve one or two ounces of sodium perborate in
              hot water.   Sodium perborate is not very soluble,
              so be patient.

         2.   Soak a bandage of cotton wadding in the solvent to
              form a paste the consistency of oatmeal.

         3.   Thoroughly wet the concrete surface to be treated
              with clean, clear water.

         4.   Apply the mixture to the stained area using a wood
              or plastic spatula and allow to dry.  Be sure to
              spread the poultice well beyond the stained area.
              The liquid portion of the paste will migrates into
              the concrete where it will dissolve some of the
              staining material.  Then the liquid will gradually
              move back beyond the concrete surface and into the
              poultice, where it will evaporate, leaving the
              dissolved staining material in the poultice.

         5.   When the poultice has dried, brush or scrape it off
              with a wooden scraper.  

         6.   Using a stiff bristle brush, scrub the surface with
              scouring powder and clean water to remove any
              residual staining.

         7.   Thoroughly rinse the area with clean, clear water
              and blot dry with clean towels.

         8.   If some blue color remains, repeat the process.  If
              a brown color is left, treat the stain by the
              method for light stains of iron rust - See 03710-26-R.

    B.   For Synthetic Dye Inks:

         1.   Synthetic dyes are used to manufacture inks of red,
              green, violet and other bright colors.  Most of
              these ink stains can be removed using a sodium
              perborate poultice as described above in 3.01 A.
              for treating ordinary writing ink stains.  

         -OR-

         2.   Apply a poultice of ammonium hydroxide and cotton
              wadding (see poultice preparation and application
              procedures described above in Section 3.01 A.2-7.).
              Repeat the treatment as necessary to achieve the
              desired level of cleanliness.

         -OR-

         3.   Apply a bandage or poultice containing 1 part
              Javelle Water diluted with 4 to 6 parts water (see
              03710-02-S for procedures on preparing Javelle
              Water).  Follow poultice preparation and
              application procedures described above in Section
              3.01 A.2-7.  Repeat the treatment as necessary to
              achieve the desired level of cleanliness.

         -OR-

         4.   Apply a poultice containing (by weight) 1 part
              calcium hypochlorite and 1 part whiting, dry mixed,
              then added with water to form a thick paste (see
              poultice preparation and application procedures
              described above in Section 3.01 A.2-7.).  Repeat
              the treatment as necessary to achieve the desired
              level of cleanliness.

         -OR-

         5.   Apply a bandage or poultice containing cotton
              wadding saturated with both potassium chloride and
              potassium hypochlorite (see poultice preparation
              and application procedures described above in
              Section 3.01 A.2-7.).  Repeat the treatment as
              necessary to achieve the desired level of
              cleanliness.

         NOTE:  BOTH THE JAVELLE WATER AND HYPOCHLORITES WILL
         BLEACH COLORED CLOTHING AND BE SLIGHTLY CORROSIVE TO
         METALS.

    C.   For Prussian Blue Inks:

         1.   Apply a bandage containing cotton wadding mixed
              with ammonium hydroxide or a strong soap solution
              (see poultice preparation and application
              procedures described above in Section 3.01 A.2-7.).
              Repeat the treatment as necessary to achieve the
              desired level of cleanliness.

              NOTE:  The iron ferrocyanide of which prussian blue
              inks are made cannot be removed by the perborate or
              the hypochlorites used for other inks.

    D.   For Indelible Inks:  Indelible inks that create a black
         stain are made with salts.

         1.   Some indelible inks are made from synthetic dyes
              and can be removed by following the same procedures
              listed for synthetic dye ink removal in Section
              3.01 B. above.

         -OR-

         2.   Apply a bandage containing cotton wadding mixed
              with ammonium hydroxide (see poultice preparation
              and application procedures described above in
              Section 3.01 A.2-7.).  Repeat the treatment as
              necessary to achieve the desired level of
              cleanliness.

    E.   For Black Inks:

         NOTE:  India inks and printing inks are made with finely
         divided carbon particles suspended in liquid by such
         materials as gums and shellacs.

         1.   Using a stiff bristle brush, scrub the stain
              vigorously with a strong soap solution or scouring
              powder.

         2.   Rinse the area thoroughly with clean, clear water.

         3.   Blot the surface dry with clean towels, and repeat
              the treatment if the stain persists.

                         END OF SECTION