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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Poulticing Linseed, Soybean And Tung Oil Stains From Concrete

Procedure code:

0371030R

Source:

Hstrc Concrete: Investigation & Rpr/Pre-Conf Training - 1989

Division:

Concrete

Section:

Concrete Cleaning

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Poulticing Linseed, Soybean And Tung Oil Stains From Concrete



POULTICING LINSEED, SOYBEAN AND TUNG OIL STAINS FROM CONCRETE


THE CLEANING OR REMOVAL OF STAINS FROM CONCRETE MAY INVOLVE THE
USE OF LIQUIDS, DETERGENTS OR SOLVENTS WHICH MAY RUN OFF ON
ADJACENT MATERIAL, DISCOLOR THE CONCRETE OR DRIVE THE STAINS DEEPER
INTO POROUS CONCRETE.  USE THE PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED
HERE ONLY FOR THE COMBINATIONS OF DIRT/STAIN AND CONCRETE SPECIFIED.


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on removing oil stains
         such as linseed, soybean and tung oils from concrete by
         poulticing with chemical solvents.

    B.   Safety Precautions:

         1.   DO NOT save unused portions of stain-removal
              materials.

         2.   DO NOT store any chemicals in unmarked containers.

         3.   EXCELLENT VENTILATION MUST BE PROVIDED WHEREVER ANY
              SOLVENT IS USED.  USE RESPIRATORS WITH SOLVENT
              FILTERS.

         4.   No use of organic solvents indoors should be
              allowed without substantial air movement.  Use only
              spark-proof fans near operations involving
              flammable liquids.

         5.   Provide adequate clothing and protective gear where
              the chemicals are indicated to be dangerous.

         6.   Have available antidote and accident treatment
              chemicals where noted.

    C.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).

    D.   For additional information on poulticing, see 04455-02-R.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MATERIALS

    NOTE:  Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
    name.  This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
    the same chemical sold under its chemical name.  The grade of
    purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
    for stain removal work, and these products should be purchased
    when available, as they tend to be less expensive.  Common
    names are indicated below by an asterisk (*).

    A.   For Light Staining:

         1.   Mineral spirits:

              a.   A petroleum distillate that is used especially
                   as a paint or varnish thinner.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Benzine* (not Benzene); Naphtha*; Petroleum
                   spirits*; Solvent naphtha*.

              c.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE.

              d.   Safety Precautions:

                   1)   AVOID REPEATED OR PROLONGED SKIN CONTACT.

                   2)   ALWAYS wear rubber gloves when handling
                        mineral spirits.

                   3)   If any chemical is splashed onto the
                        skin, wash immediately with soap and
                        water.

                   4)   Available from construction specialties
                        distributor, hardware store, paint store,
                        or printer's supply distributor.

    B.   For Heavy Staining - Method 1 (see Section 3.02 below):

         1.   Sodium Perborate:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Perborax*.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE (WHEN
                   IN CONTACT WITH ORGANIC SOLVENTS).

              c.   Available from chemical supply house,
                   drugstore or pharmaceutical supply
                   distributor, grocery store or supermarket.

         2.   Sodium Orthophosphate:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Tribasic sodium phosphate; Trisodium
                   orthophosphate; Trisodium phosphate; TSP*;
                   Phosphate of soda*.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  CORROSIVE TO FLESH.

              c.   Available from chemical supply distributor,
                   supermarket, grocery, or hardware store.

    C.   For Heavy Staining - Method 2 (see Section 3.02 below):

         1.   Hydrogen Peroxide (H202):

              a.   An unstable compound used especially as an
                   oxidizing and bleaching agent, an antiseptic,
                   and a propellant.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Peroxide of hydrogen*; Solution of hydrogen
                   dioxide*; Superoxol*; (hydrogen peroxide is
                   commonly sold as a 3% solution; Superoxol is a
                   30% solution; Superoxol causes flesh burns; 3%
                   hydrogen peroxide does not).

              c.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC (when concentrated);
                   CORROSIVE TO FLESH (gasoline, kerosene and
                   mineral spirits are each a mixture of
                   compounds from petroleum, all of which fall
                   within a specified range of properties);
                   FLAMMABLE (in high concentration).

              d.   Available from chemical supply house,
                   drugstore, pharmaceutical supply distributor,
                   or hardware store.

         2.   Ammonium Hydroxide (NH5O):

              a.   A weakly basic compound that is formed when
                   ammonia dissolves in water and that exists
                   only in solution.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include Ammonia
                   water*; Aqua ammonia*; Household ammonia*.

              c.   Potential hazards:  TOXIC; MAY IRRITATE THE
                   EYES.

              d.   Available from chemical supply house, grocery
                   store or pharmaceutical supply distributor, or
                   hardware store.

    D.   Filler material such as diatomaceous earth, fuller's
         earth or talc

    E.   Cotton wadding for bandage (method 2 only)

    F.   Mineral water

    G.   Clean dry towels for blotting the area after treatment

    H.   Liquid soap solution

    I.   Clean, potable water

    J.   Accessible source of water, soap and towels for washing
         and rinsing in case of emergencies associated with the
         use of chemicals

2.02 EQUIPMENT

    A.   Glass or ceramic container for mixing the solution

    B.   Wooden utensil for stirring the ingredients

    C.   Wood or plastic spatula

    D.   Stiff bristle brush (non-metallic)


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 PREPARATION

    A.   Protection:

         1.   Provide adequate wash solutions (i.e. water, soap
              and towels) before starting the job.

         2.   Whenever acid is used, the surface should be
              thoroughly rinsed with water as soon as its action
              has been adequate.  Otherwise it will continue
              etching the concrete even though the stain is gone.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    NOTE:  DO NOT TRY MORE THAN ONE TREATMENT ON A GIVEN AREA
    UNLESS THE CHEMICALS USED FROM PRIOR TREATMENT HAVE BEEN
    WASHED AWAY.

    A.   Absorb excess oil by blotting the surface with paper
         towels or cloths.  Avoid wiping the oil into the surface.

    B.   Cover the surface with one of the dry powdered filler
         materials listed in Section 2.01 above.  Leave in place
         for approximately 24 hours and sweep up or brush off.

    C.   Repeat with fresh powder until as much oil as possible
         has been absorbed from the surface.

    D.   If light staining remains, apply a poultice containing
         mineral spirits:

         1.   Mix mineral spirits and filler material to make a
              stiff paste.

         2.   Follow poulticing procedures below under Method 1,
              Section 3.02 E.1. c.-g.

    E.   If heavy staining remains, try one of the following
         methods:

         1.   Method 1:

              a.   Mix 1 part by weight of sodium orthophosphate,
                   1 part by weight of sodium perborate and 3
                   parts by weight of powdered talc.

              b.   Add enough liquid soap or solution of strong
                   soap in hot water to make a stiff paste.

              c.   Thoroughly wet the concrete surface to be
                   treated with clean, clear water.

              d.   Apply the poultice to the stained area using a
                   wood or plastic spatula to a thickness of 1/8"
                   and allow to dry.  Be sure to spread the
                   poultice well beyond the stained area.  The
                   liquid portion of the paste will migrate into
                   the concrete where it will dissolve some of
                   the staining material.  Then the liquid will
                   gradually move back beyond the concrete
                   surface and into the poultice, where it will
                   evaporate, leaving the dissolved staining
                   material in the poultice.

              e.   When the poultice has dried, brush or scrape
                   it off with a wooden scraper.  

              f.   Repeat the process as necessary to achieve the
                   desired level of cleanliness.  The dried
                   poultice can be used over again each time by
                   remixing it with the liquid soap or soap
                   solution.

              g.   Thoroughly rinse and scrub the area with
                   clean, clear water using a stiff bristle brush
                   and allow to dry.

         2.   Method 2:

              a.   Soak a bandage of undyed cloth or cotton
                   batting in a solution containing 1 part
                   hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) in 10 to 15
                   parts of water.

              b.   Apply the treated bandage to the stained
                   surface.

              c.   Apply over the top of it a bandage soaked with
                   an ammonium hydroxide solution as concentrated
                   as household ammonia (about 3% ammonia gas).

              d.   Allow to stand 50-60 minutes.

              e.   Remove the bandage and scrub the surface with
                   a stiff bristle brush, scouring powder and
                   clean water.

              f.   Thoroughly rinse the area with clean, clear
                   water and allow to dry.

              g.   Repeat the process as necessary to
                   sufficiently remove the stain.

                         END OF SECTION