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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Removing Ink And Dye Stains From Marble

Procedure code:

0445518R

Source:

Outdoor Sculpture Manual - Center For Public Buildings

Division:

Masonry

Section:

Marble

Last Modified:

12/17/2014

Details:

Removing Ink And Dye Stains From Marble



REMOVING INK AND DYE STAINS FROM MARBLE


THE CLEANING OR REMOVAL OF STAINS FROM STONE MAY INVOLVE THE USE
OF LIQUIDS, DETERGENTS OR SOLVENTS WHICH MAY RUN OFF ON ADJACENT
MATERIAL, DISCOLOR THE STONE OR DRIVE THE STAINS DEEPER INTO POROUS
STONES.  USE THE PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED HERE ONLY FOR
THE COMBINATIONS OF DIRT/STAIN AND STONE SPECIFIED.


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on the removal of ink
         and dye stains from marble by a combination of absorption
         and bleaching.

    B.   Wine, ink and dyes are generally water or alcohol based.
         They are readily absorbed into dry stone when they are
         spilled or applied to the stone.  As the water or alcohol
         base evaporates, the pigment residue is left deposited on
         and possibly below the surface.

    C.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).

    D.   For additional information on poulticing, see 04455-02-R.

    E.   For general information on the characteristics, uses and
         problems associated with marble, see 04455-01-S.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MATERIALS

    NOTE:  Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
    name.  This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
    the same chemical sold under its chemical name.  The grade of
    purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
    for stain removal work, and these products should be purchased
    when available, as they tend to be less expensive.  Common
    names are indicated below by an asterisk (*).

    A.   Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH):

         1.   Other chemical or common names include Carbinol;
              Methanol; Methyl hydrate; Methyl hydroxide;
              Methylic alcohol; Colonial spirits*; Columnian
              spirits*; Green wood spirits*; Manhattan spirits*;
              Pyroligneous spirit*; Pyroxylic spirit*; Standard
              wood spirits*; Wood alcohol*; Wood naphtha*; Wood
              spirit*.

         2.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE.

         3.   Available from automotive supply distributor,
              chemical supply house, dry cleaning supply
              distributor, drugstore or pharmaceutical supply
              distributor, hardware store, paint store, or
              photographic supply distributor (not camera shop).

    -OR-

    Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH):

         1.   Other chemical or common names include Ethanol;
              Ethyl hydroxide; Ethylic alcohol; Methyl carbinol;
              Cologne spirits*; Fermentation alcohol*; Grain
              alcohol*; proof spirit*; Rectified spirit*; Spirits
              of wine*.

         2.   Potential Hazards:  FLAMMABLE.

         3.   Available from chemical supply house, hardware
              store or liquor store.

         4.   Denatured alcohol, which carries no liquor tax,
              should be a satisfactory substitute for ethyl
              alcohol for stain removing purposes.

    B.   Hydrogen Peroxide (H202):

         1.   An unstable compound used especially as an
              oxidizing and bleaching agent, an antiseptic, and a
              propellant.

         2.   Other chemical or common names include Peroxide of
              hydrogen*; Solution of hydrogen dioxide*;
              Superoxol*; (hydrogen peroxide is commonly sold as
              a 3% solution; Superoxol is a 30% solution;
              Superoxol causes flesh burns; 3% hydrogen peroxide
              does not).

         3.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC (when concentrated);
              CORROSIVE TO FLESH (gasoline, kerosene and mineral
              spirits are each a mixture of compounds from
              petroleum, all of which fall within a specified
              range of properties); FLAMMABLE (in high
              concentration).

         4.   Available from chemical supply house, drugstore,
              pharmaceutical supply distributor, or hardware
              store.

    C.   Ammonium Hydroxide (NH5O):

         CAUTION:  DO NOT MIX AMMONIA WITH CHLORINE BLEACHES, A
         POISONOUS GAS WILL RESULT!  DO NOT USE BLEACH ON BIRD
         DROPPINGS.

         1.   A weakly basic compound that is formed when ammonia
              dissolves in water and that exists only in
              solution.

         2.   Other chemical or common names include Ammonia
              water*; Aqua ammonia*; Household ammonia*.

         3.   Potential hazards:  TOXIC; MAY IRRITATE THE EYES.

         4.   Available from chemical supply house, grocery store
              or pharmaceutical supply distributor, or hardware
              store.

    D.   Filler material such as Kaolin or Fuller's Earth

    E.   Mineral water

    F.   Plastic sheeting

    G.   Clean, dry towels for blotting the cleansed surface

2.02 EQUIPMENT

    A.   Wood or plastic spatula

    B.   Waterproof container for mixing paste

    C.   Wooden utensil for stirring the ingredients

    D.   Masking tape


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 EXAMINATION

    A.   Examine the marble surface CAREFULLY to determine the
         cause of staining before proceeding with any cleaning
         operation.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    A.   For ink stains formulated from metallic salts, follow
         procedures for removing iron stains from limestone and
         marble (see 04400-06-R).

    B.   For non-metallic ink stains, mix methyl or ethyl alcohol
         with filler material to form a thick paste the
         consistency of oatmeal.

    C.   Thoroughly rinse the area to be treated with mineral
         water.

    D.   Using a wooden or plastic spatula, apply the paste to the
         stained surface in layers no more than 1/4 inch thick.
         The poultice should extend well beyond the stain to
         prevent forcing the stain into previously clean stone.

    E.   Cover the poultice with plastic sheeting to prevent it
         from drying-out too quickly.

    F.   When the paste has dried, remove it from the surface with
         a wood or plastic spatula.

    G.   Flush the surface with household ammonia.

    H.   Thoroughly rinse the clean surface with mineral water,
         blot with clean dry towels, and allow the stone to dry
         completely.

    I.   If there is residual staining, repeat the treatment to
         achieve the desired level of cleanliness.

         -OR-

         Apply a bleach poultice containing a 6% solution of
         hydrogen peroxide mixed with filler material.  Follow
         procedures C. through G. above.

         NOTE:  DO NOT USE BLEACH ON DARK COLORED STONES AS THIS
         WILL CAUSE THE STONE TO LIGHTEN.

         CAUTION:  DO NOT USE MIX BLEACH AND AMMONIA.  THIS WILL
         PRODUCE A TOXIC GAS

                         END OF SECTION
 


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