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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Spot Cleaning Oil Stains On Granite

Procedure code:

0446503R

Source:

Us Custom House/P.O., St. Louis, Mo - Gsa/Pbs

Division:

Masonry

Section:

Granite

Last Modified:

06/14/2012

Details:

Spot Cleaning Oil Stains On Granite



SPOT CLEANING OIL STAINS ON GRANITE


THE CLEANING OR REMOVAL OF STAINS FROM STONE MAY INVOLVE THE USE
OF LIQUIDS, DETERGENTS OR SOLVENTS WHICH MAY RUN OFF ON ADJACENT
MATERIAL, DISCOLOR THE STONE OR DRIVE THE STAINS DEEPER INTO THE
POROUS STONE.  USE THE PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED HERE ONLY
FOR THE COMBINATIONS OF DIRT/STAIN AND STONE SPECIFIED.


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on removing stubborn oil
         stains and discoloration in local areas from granite
         surfaces.

    B.   For guidance on spot cleaning other stains on granite,
         refer to the following:

         1.   For iron stains:  See 04465-01-R.

         2.   For copper/bronze stains:  See 04465-02-R.

    C.   Safety Precautions:

         1.   DO NOT save unused portions of stain-removal
              materials.

         2.   DO NOT store any chemicals in unmarked containers.

         3.   EXCELLENT VENTILATION MUST BE PROVIDED WHEREVER ANY
              SOLVENT IS USED.  USE RESPIRATORS WITH SOLVENT
              FILTERS.

              NOTE:  SOME OF THE SOLVENTS LISTED ARE KNOWN
              CARCINOGENS AND MAY BE BANNED IN SOME STATES.

         4.   No use of organic solvents indoors should be
              allowed without substantial air movement.  Use only
              spark-proof fans near operations involving
              flammable liquids.

         5.   Provide adequate clothing and protective gear where
              the chemicals are indicated to be dangerous.

         6.   Have available antidote and accident treatment
              chemicals where noted.

    D.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).

    E.   For general information on the characteristics, uses and
         problems associated with granite, see 04465-01-S.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MATERIALS

    NOTE:  Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
    name.  This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
    the same chemical sold under its chemical name.  The grade of
    purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
    for stain removal work, and these products should be purchased
    when available, as they tend to be less expensive.  Common
    names are indicated below by an asterisk (*).

    A.   For Scrubbing by Hand:

         1.   Chemical Cleaning Compound:  Hydrofluoric (HF) and
              phosphoric (H3PO4) acids in concentrations not
              exceeding 5% weight to volume, with surfactants
              such as ethoxylated alkylphenols and ethoxylated
              alcohols at concentration of 1 to 2% weight to
              volume.

         -OR-

         2.   Cleaning Detergent:  Cleaning detergent designed
              for use on masonry surfaces, free of deleterious
              amounts of acids, alkalies and organic materials,
              as recommended by manufacturer for masonry surfaces
              of work to be cleaned as acceptable.

    B.   Materials for Use on New Oil Stains (Paste Application):

         1.   Benzol (C6H6):

              a.   A colorless, volatile, flammable, toxic,
                   liquid, aromatic hydrocarbon used in organic
                   synthesis, as a solvent and as a motor fuel.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Benzene; Benzole; Phene; Phenyl hydride; Coal
                   naphtha*; Motor benzol*.

              c.   Potential Hazards:  FLAMMABLE.

              d.   Available from automotive supply distributor,
                   chemical supply house, dry cleaning supply
                   distributor, hardware store or paint store.

              e.   Benzene and benzine should not be confused.
                   Benzene is a distinct chemical compound
                   obtained from coal tar.  Benzine is a mixture
                   of aromatic hydrocarbons of similar boiling
                   points derived from petroleum.

         2.   Hydrated lime or marble dust

    C.   Materials for Use on Linseed Oil Stains (Paste
         Application):

         1.   Trisodium Phosphate:

              NOTE:  THIS CHEMICAL IS BANNED IN SOME STATES SUCH
              AS CALIFORNIA.  REGULATORY INFORMATION AS WELL AS
              ALTERNATIVE OR EQUIVALENT CHEMICALS MAY BE
              REQUESTED FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
              (EPA) REGIONAL OFFICE AND/OR THE STATE OFFICE OF
              ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY.

              a.   Strong base-type powdered cleaning material
                   sold under brand names.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include Sodium
                   Orthophosphate; Tribasic sodium phosphate;
                   Trisodium orthophosphate; TSP*; Phosphate of
                   soda*; (also sold under brand names such as).

              c.   Potential Hazards:  CORROSIVE TO FLESH.

              d.   Available from chemical supply house, grocery
                   store or supermarket or hardware store.

         2.   Sodium Perborate:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Perborax*.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE (WHEN
                   IN CONTACT WITH ORGANIC SOLVENTS).

              c.   Available from chemical supply house,
                   drugstore or pharmaceutical supply
                   distributor, grocery store or supermarket.

         3.   Powdered talc

         -OR-

         4.   Proprietary preparations of paste are also
              available and should be used according to their
              manufacturer's published instructions.

    D.   Clean potable water


2.02 EQUIPMENT

    A.   For Poulticing:

         1.   Glass or ceramic container for mixing the solution

         2.   Wooden utensil for stirring the ingredients

    B.   Wood or plastic spatula

    C.   Stiff bristle brush (non-metallic)


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 PREPARATION

    A.   Protection:

         1.   The use of wire brushes, steel wool, or abrasive
              tools for cleaning will not be permitted.

         2.   Provide adequate wash solutions (i.e. water, soap
              and towels) before starting the job.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    NOTE:  DO NOT TRY MORE THAN ONE TREATMENT ON A GIVEN AREA
    UNLESS THE CHEMICALS USED FROM PRIOR TREATMENT HAVE BEEN
    WASHED AWAY.

    A.   Using a Proprietary Cleaning Compound or Detergent:

         1.   Apply chemical cleaner or detergent to stained
              surface following manufacturer's instructions.

         2.   Scrub the surface by hand using a stiff (non-
              metallic) bristle brush.  Begin at the top of the
              stained area and work down.

         3.   Thoroughly rinse the surface with clean, clear
              water and allow to dry.

         4.   Repeat as necessary to achieve the desired level of
              cleanliness.

    B.   Poulticing New Oil Stains:

         1.   Thoroughly rinse the area to be treated with clean,
              clear water.

         2.   Mix a solution of benzol in a glass or ceramic
              bowl.

         3.   Thoroughly moisten the stained area with this
              solution, being sure to dampen an area well beyond
              the stain.

         4.   Mix the remaining liquid with hydrated lime or
              marble dust to form a paste the consistency of
              oatmeal or cake icing.

         5.   Using a wooden or plastic spatula, apply the paste
              over the entire stained area in layers no more than
              1/4 inch thick.  Extend the poultice well beyond
              the stain to prevent forcing the stain into
              previously clean stone.

         6.   Allow to dry (approximately 48 hours).

         7.   After the poultice has set, dampen it with mineral
              water.

         8.   Remove dried paste with wooden scrapers or
              spatulas.

         9.   Thoroughly rinse the area with clean, clear water
              and allow to dry.

         10.  Check for remaining residue and repeat the process
              if necessary to achieve the desired level of
              cleanliness.

    C.   Poulticing Linseed Oil Stains:

         1.   Thoroughly rinse the area to be treated with clean,
              clear water.

         2.   Make a paste composed of one part trisodium
              phosphate, one part sodium perborate and 3 parts
              powdered talc, mixed with a strong soap solution.

         3.   Follow steps 3 to 10 in 3.02 B. above.

    NOTE:  Finished work shall show no signs of stains, scratches,
    streaks or runs of discoloration, mortar damage or other like
    defects from use of cleaners.  Leave all masonry surfaces neat
    and clean.

                         END OF SECTION
 


oil stains, grease stains, poulticing stains, granite stains