Skip to main content

Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Supplemental Guidelines For Specifying Repairs To Damaged Woodwork

Procedure code:

0640004R

Source:

Tacoma Union Station Courthouse/Tacoma, Wa - 1990

Division:

Wood And Plastics

Section:

Architectural Woodwork

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Supplemental Guidelines For Specifying Repairs To Damaged Woodwork



SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFYI= NG REPAIRS TO DAMAGED
WOODWORK


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure provides supplemental guidelines to be
         used when specifying any type of repair to damaged
         woodwork.  Guidelines for materials, fabrication and
         general guidelines for installation are included.

    B.   Specifications for the repair of woodwork shall include
         all work, materials and equipment requir= ed to:

         1.   Carefully remove required woodwork and securely
              reinstall it to its origi= nal place and position.
              Use experienced riggers for the removal and
              transportation of woodwor= k.

         2.   Repair woodwork to conservator quality standards.

         3.   Document work done through photography.

    C.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precaution= s

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling=

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed before performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).

1.02 REFERENCES

    A.   American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100
         Barr Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, (610) 832-9585
         or FAX (610) 832-9555.

1.03 SUBMITTALS

    A.   Wood Treatment Data:  Submit chemical treatme= nt
         manufacturers' instructions for handling, storing,
         installation, and finish of treated material.

         1.   Non-Pressure Preservative Treatment:  Include
              certification stating chemical solution and
              submersion period used and affirming compliance
              with indicated treatment standards.

         2.   Fire-retardant treatment data for material
              impregnated by pressure process to reduce
              combustibility.  Inc= lude certification by
              manufacturer that treated materials comply with
              requirements.

    B.   Restore twenty square feet or five linear feet (or
         quantity as appropriate) of each wood type to be restored
         for review by the RHPO before proceeding with all
         restoration.  Where new wood must be used to match
         existing to repair or infill damaged wood, install twenty
         square feet or five linear feet (or quantity as
         appropriate) in its final location for review by the RHPO
         before proceeding with all repair.

    C.   Shop Drawings:  For new woodwork, submit shop drawings
         showing location of each item, dimension= al plans and
         elevations, large scale details, attachm= ent devices and
         other components.  

    D.   Quality Certification:  Submit woodwork manuf= acturers'
         (fabricator's) certification, saying that fabricated
         woodwork complies with quality grades and other
         requirements suggested.

    E.   Field Measurements:  

         1.   Where woodwork is shown to be fitted to other
              construction, check actual dimensions of other
              construction by accurate field measurements before
              manufacturing woodwork; show recorded measurements
              before final shop drawing= s.  Coordinate
              manufacturing schedule with construction progress
              to avoid delay of work.
         2.   Where field measurements cannot be made without
              delaying the work, guaran= tee dimensions and proceed
              with manufacture of woodw= ork without field
              measurements.  Coord= inate other construction to
              ensure that actual dimens= ions correspond to
              guaranteed dimensions.

1.04 QUALITY ASSURANCE

    A.   Installer Qualifications:  Arrange for instal= lation of
         architectural woodwork by a firm that can show successful
         experience in installing architectural woodwork items
         similar in type and quality to those required for this
         project.

    B.   Architectural Woodwork Institute (AWI) Quality Standard:
         Comply with applicable requirements of "Architectural
         Woodwork Quality Standards" publish= ed by the
         Architectural Woodwork Institute unless otherwise
         indicated.

    C.   Testing and Site Inspection:  Conduct tests in the
         presence of the RHPO, using all procedur= es, materials and
         equipment needed to carry out the work.<= br>
1.05 DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING

    A.   Packing and Shipping:  Do not deliver woodwork until
         painting, wet work, grinding, and similar operations that
         could damage, soil or deteriorate new woodwork have been
         completed in installation areas.  <= br>
    B.   Storage and Protection:  If woodwork must be stored in
         other than installation areas, store only in areas whose
         environmental conditions meet requiremen= ts specified in
         Section 1.06 Project/Site Conditions below.

1.06 PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS

    A.   Environmental Requirements:

         1.   Provide adequate ventilation, use of respirators
              and protective clothing by workers, and sealing off
              work areas during the removal process.

         2.   Woodwork manufacturer and installer shall advise
              contractor of temperature and humidity requirements
              for woodwork installation and storage areas.  Do
              not install woodwork until required temperature and
              relative humidity have been stabilized and will be
              maintained in installation areas.

         3.   Environmental Conditions:  Obtain and comply with
              woodwork manufacturers' and installers coordinated
              advice for optimum temper= ature and humidity
              conditions for woodwork during its storage and
              installation.  Do not install woodwork until these
              conditions have been attained and stabilized so
              that woodwork is within plus or minus 1.0% of
              optimum moisture content from date of installation
              through remainder of construction period.

1.07 SEQUENCING AND SCHEDULING

    A.   Coordinate the work in this specification with
         appropriate work of other specifications to ensure proper
         scheduling for fabrication and installat= ion of the work
         specified herein.

    B.   Verify all dimensions in the field before fabricat= ion of
         all architectural woodwork to assure proper fit.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MATERIALS

    A.   Wood Moisture Content:  Provide kiln-dried lumber with an
         average moisture content range of 6% to 11% for interior
         work.  Maintain temperature and relative humidity during
         fabrication, storage and finishing opera= tions so that
         moisture content values for woodwork at time of
         installation do not exceed the above range.

    B.   Replacement Wood:  Match species, grade, grain pattern,
         and other special characteristics of woodwork.

    C.   Provide wood blocking, anchorages and fasteners for
         above:

         1.   Screws:  

              a.   Select material, type, size and finish
                   requi= red for each use and as recommended by
                   RHPO.  

              b.   For metal frami= ng supports, provide screws as
                   recom= mended by metal framing manufacturer.

         2.   Nails:  Select material, type, size and finish
              required for each use and as recommended by RHPO.  

         3.   Anchors:  Select material, type, size and finish
              required by each substrate for secure anchorage.
              Provide nonferrous metal or hot-dip galvanized
              anchors and inserts on inside face of exterior
              walls and elsewhere as required for corrosion
              resistance.  Provide toothed steel or lead
              expansion bolt devices for drilled-in-place
              anchors.  Furnish inserts and anchors, as required,
              to be set into concrete or masonry work for
              subsequent woodwork ancho= rage.

    D.   Fire-Retardant Materials:

         1.   Fire-retardant treated lumber shall be lumber and
              plywood with fire-retarda= nt chemicals to comply
              with ASTM C20 and C27, respectively; provide
              materials which are press= ure impregnated with fire-
              retardant chemicals and comply with the following
              requirements.

              a.   Fire-Retardant Chemicals:  Use chemicals of
                   type which do not bleed through or otherwise
                   adver= sely affect finishes.  Do not use
                   color= ants in solution to distinguish treated
                   lumber from untreated lumber.

                   1)   Low Hygroscopic Type:  Halogen and
                        sulfate-free solution intended for
                        interior applications not exposed to
                        relative humidity more than 95%; with
                        treated material having an equilibrium
                        moisture content of not over 28% per ASTM
                        D3201 at 92 =F1 2% relative humidity.

              b.   Available Produ= cts:  Subject to compliance
                   with requirements, products which may be
                   incor= porated in the work include, but are not
                   limit= ed to, the following:

                   1)   "Dricon" (Koppers Co., Inc.).

                   2)   "Flameproof LHC" (Osmose Wood Preserving
                        Co. of America, Inc.).

                   3)   "Protex" (Hoover Universal, Wood
                        Preserving Division).

         2.   Fire Performance Characteristi= cs:  Provide
              materials which are ident= ical to those tested per
              ASTM methods and are marked and listed for fire
              performance characteristi= cs by Underwriters
              Laboratories, Inc. or other testing and inspecting
              agency acceptable to authorities having
              jurisdiction, and comply with the following
              requirements:

              a.   Mill lumber after treatment, within limits set
                   for wood removal that does not affect listed
                   fire performance characteristics, using a
                   woodw= orking plant certified by testing and
                   inspe= ction agency.

              b.   Marking:  = Identify treated lumber with
                   separ= able paper classification marking of
                   inspe= cting and testing agency, unless
                   other= wise indicated.

              c.   Surface Burning Characteristics:  Not
                   excee= ding values shown below, tested per ASTM
                   E84 for 30 minutes with no evidence of
                   signi= ficant combustion.

                   1.   Flame Spread:  25.

                   2.   Smoke Developed:  50.

              d.   Kiln-dry woodwo= rk after treatment to levels
                   requi= red for non-fire-retardant woodwork
                   mater= ials.  Maintain moisture content required
                   by kiln drying, before and after treatment.

              e.   Discard treated lumber that does not comply
                   with requirements of referenced woodworking
                   stand= ard.  Do not use twisted, warped, bowed,
                   disco= lored, or otherwise damaged or defective
                   lumbe= r.

2.02 FABRICATION

    A.   Wood Moisture Content:  Comply with requireme= nts of
         referenced quality standard for moisture content of
         lumber in relation to relative humidity conditions
         existing during time of fabrication and in installation
         areas.

    B.   Fabricate woodwork to dimensions, profiles, and details
         provided and approved by RHPO.

    C.   Complete fabrication, including assembly, finishing and
         hardware application, before shipment to project site to
         maximum extent possible.  Disassemb= le components only as
         necessary for shipment and installation.  Where necessary
         for fitting at site, provide ample allow= ance for
         scribing, trimming, and fitting.

    D.   Wood Surrounds and Trim:  Fabricate to profil= es required
         in single lengths for jamb and head conditions.
         Provisions for securing through face of trim shall
         include plugs to match surface.

    E.   Factory-cut openings, to maximum extent possible, to
         receive hardware, appliances, plumbing fixtures,
         electrical work, and similar items.  Locate openings
         accurately and use templates or roughing= -in diagrams to
         produce accurately sized and shaped openings.  Smooth
         edges of cutouts and, where located in countertops and
         similar exposures, seal edges of cutouts with a water-resistant coating.

    F.   Measurements:  Before proceeding with fabrica= tion of
         woodwork required to be fitted to other construction,
         obtain field measurements and verify dimensions and shop
         drawing details as required for accurate fit.

         1.   Where the sequence of measuring substrates before
              fabrication would delay the project, continue with
              fabrication (without field measurements) and
              provide ample borders and edges to allow for
              subsequent scribing and trimming of woodwork for
              accurate fit.

    G.   Preservative Treatment by Non-Pressure Method:  Comply
         with requirements of referenced woodwork= ing standard for
         nonpressure treatment of woodwork with nonaqueous water
         repellent solution, except as indicated.  Treat units of
         woodwork after cutting, machining, sandi= ng, gluing and
         assembling has been completed to the greatest extent
         possible.  Coat surfaces cut after treatment with heavy
         brush coating of same preservative.


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 EXAMINATION

    A.   Conserve as much of the original material as possi= ble,
         repairing and restoring damaged existing woodwork rather
         than replacing it wherever practicable.  Use salvaged
         material where practical in spaces with some existing
         woodwork to remain.  If not practic= al, replace all
         woodwork with new materials that replica= te the existing
         items; maintain RHPO approval.

    B.   Do a thorough examination of the existing wood condition.
         Do any necessary tests on an inconspicuo= us surface to
         learn the current condition and appropri= ate steps and
         materials necessary for restoration of all existing wood
         surfaces.

3.02 PREPARATION

    A.   Protection:

         1.   Protect adjacent surfaces with polyethylene covers
              during wood removal opera= tions.

         2.   Protect persons and surrounding surfaces of
              building interiors whose wood surfaces are being
              restored from damage resulting from wood
              restoration work.

    B.   Surface Preparation:

         1.   Condition woodwork according to average prevailing
              humidity conditions in installation areas before
              installing.

         2.   Before installing architectural woodwork, examine
              shop-fabricated work for completion and complete
              work as required, includi= ng back priming and
              removal of packing.

         3.   Pre-Installation Meeting:  Meet at project site
              before delivery of archit= ectural woodwork and
              review coordination and environmental controls
              required for proper insta= llation and ambient
              conditioning in areas to receive work.  Include in
              meeting the contractor; RHPO, contracting officer,
              and other owner represent= atives (if any);
              installers of architectur= al woodwork, wet work such
              as plastering, other finishes, painting, mechanical
              work and electrical work; and firms or persons
              responsible for continued operation (whether
              temporary or permanent) of HVAC system as required
              to maintain temperature and humidity conditions.
              Proceed with woodwork installation only when
              everyone concerned agrees that required ambient
              conditions can be maintai= ned.

         4.   Deliver concrete inserts and similar anchoring
              devices to be built into substrates, well ahead of
              time substrates are to be built.

3.03 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    A.   General:

         1.   Quality Standard:  Install woodwork to comply with
              AWI Section 1700 for type of woodwork involved.

         2.   Carefully remove at locations indicated any damaged
              or deteriorated woodwork.  Unless indicated
              otherwise, replace the entire length of the
              existing damaged piece to the next butt joint.

         3.   For partial replacement of existing pieces, use a
              neat, well-fitted level cut with grain aligned in
              transparent finish wood.<= br>
    B.   Replacing Deteriorated Material:  Install new pieces as
         follows:

         1.   Install the work plumb, level, true and straight
              with no distortions.  Shim as required using
              concealed shims.  In= stall to a tolerance of 1/8" in
              8'-0" for plumb and level; and with 1/16" maximum
              offset in flush adjoining surface, 1/8" maximum
              offsets in revealed adjoi= ning surfaces.

         2.   Cut to fit unless specified to be shop-fabricated
              or shop-cut to exact size.  Where woodwork abuts
              other finished work, scribe and cut for accurate
              fit.  Before making cutouts, drill pilot holes at
              corners.

         3.   Standing and Running Trim:  Install with minimum
              number of joints possible, using full-length pieces
              (from maximum length of lumber available) to the
              greatest extent possible.  Stagger joints in
              adjacent and related members.  Cope at returns,
              miter at corners, and comply with Quality Standards
              for joinery.

              a.   Reuse salvage material as required.  Use only
                   trim that can be reinstalled and refinished to
                   an acceptable condition consistent with the
                   exist= ing trim to remain.

              b.   Where salvage material will not match
                   exist= ing, remove and replace with new to
                   repli= cate existing.

         4.   Anchor woodwork to anchors or blocking built-in or
              directly attached to substrates.  Secure to
              grounds, stripping and blocking with countersunk,
              concealed fasteners and blind nailing as required
              for a complete installati= on.  Except where
              prefinished matching fasteners heads are required,
              use fine finishing nails for exposed nailing,
              countersunk and filled flush with woodwork, and
              matching final finish where transparent finish is
              suggested.

         5.   Finish replacement woodwork to match adjacent
              woodwork surfaces.

3.04 ADJUSTING/CLEANING

    A.   Upon completion of this work, all floors, walls and other
         adjacent surfaces stained, marred, other= wise damaged by
         work under this section shall be cleaned and repaired and
         all work and the adjacent areas shall be left in a clean
         and perfect condition.

    B.   All completed work shall be adequately protected from
         damage by subsequent building operations and effects of
         weather.  Protection shall be by methods recommended by
         the manufacturer of installed materials and as approved
         by the RHPO.

    C.   Repair damaged and defective woodwork wherever possible
         to eliminate defects functionally and visually; where not
         possible to repair properly, replace woodwork.  Adjust
         joinery for uniform appearance.

    D.   Clean woodwork on exposed and semi-exposed surface= s.
         Touch up factory-applied finishes to restore damaged or
         soiled areas.

3.05 PROTECTION

    A.   Protect work of other trades, whether to be restor= ed or
         not, against damage by restoration work.  Correct any
         damage by cleaning, repairing or replaci= ng, as acceptable
         to RHPO.  At completion of work of other trades, restore
         all damaged or defaced surfaces.

    B.   Provide final protection and maintain conditions in a
         manner acceptable to manufacturer and installer, that
         ensures that woodwork is being without damage or
         deterioration at time of substantial completion.

                         END OF SECTION