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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Installing A Tin Ceiling And Cornice

Procedure code:

0573002R

Source:

Developed For Hspg (Nps - Sero)

Division:

Metals

Section:

Ornamental Sheet Metal

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Installing A Tin Ceiling And Cornice



INSTALLING A TIN CEILING AND CORNICE


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on installing a new tin
         ceiling to replace one that has deteriorated.

    B.   Metal ceiling panels are typically 2-feet x 8-feet and
         are nailed to wood furring strips which are, in turn,
         nailed to the ceiling joists of an existing ceiling.

    C.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).

1.02 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

    A.   Packing and Shipping:  Protect tin ceiling sheets from
         damage at all times during handling, installation, and
         operation of the building.

    B.   Acceptance at Site:

         1.   New metal sheets shall be delivered on the job
              carefully packed.  Inspect each piece immediately
              before installation, and do not use the pieces
              which have observable edge damage or face
              imperfections.

         2.   Manufacturer's delivery or job markings on the tin
              sheets, and adhesives for manufacturer's labels,
              shall be a neutral material.  In no case shall such
              material be alkaline; any staining of the tin
              sheets by alkaline materials will be cause for the
              rejection of the piece.

    C.   Storage and Protection:

         1.   Metal sheets should be stored as to protect from
              edge and face damage at all times, carefully packed
              and should remain so from the time of delivery
              until set.

         2.   Salvaged historic material shall be carefully
              packed and stored under cover and in the building
              away from work or traffic areas.  Mark salvaged
              material with the year of removal.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MANUFACTURERS

    A.   For Metal Ceilings and Cornices:

         1.   A.A. Abbingdon Affiliates, Inc.
              2149 Utica Avenue
              Brooklyn, NY  11234  
              718/258-8333

         2.   Chelsea Decorative Metal Co.
              6115 Cheena
              Houston, TX  77096  
              713/721-9200

         3.   Kenneth Lynch & Sons
              78 Danbury Road
              Wilton, CT  06897  
              203/762-8363

         4.   Old Jefferson Tile Co.
              P.O.Box 323
              Jefferson, TX  75657  
              713/665-2221

         5.   W.F. Norman Corporation
              P.O.Box 323
              Nevada, MO  64772  
              800/641-4038

2.02 MATERIALS

    A.   Furring strips 1x3's or 1x2's

    B.   1-inch long flat head nails as required

    C.   3-inch long flat head nails or 2-1/2-inch drywall screws
         as required

    D.   Wood shims as required

    E.   Glazing compound or latex caulk

    F.   Tin sheets - ceiling panels and cornice pieces (see
         Manufacturers above)

    G.   Appropriate primer and finish coat paints

    H.   Mineral spirits

    I.   Soft rags

    J.   Clean, potable water

2.03 EQUIPMENT

    A.   Chalk line

    B.   Metal ruler

    C.   Straightedge

    D.   Sheet metal cutters

    E.   Hammer and/or screwgun

    F.   Heavy gloves and protective gear

    G.   Scaffolding/working platforms

    H.   Ladders


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 EXAMINATION

    A.   Before proceeding with steps to install the metal
         ceiling, it is important to first determine the cause and
         extent of the problem:

         1.   Determine the age of the building and if a tin
              ceiling did exist before or if it is an appropriate
              ceiling substitute in terms of historical accuracy
              and expense.  

         2.   If a ceiling exists, can it can be salvaged?

3.02 PREPARATION

    A.   Surface Preparation:

         1.   Remove any residue from factor-shipped metal by
              cleaning the sheets thoroughly with denatured
              alcohol or mineral spirits.  Allow to dry before
              priming.

         2.   Prime the face of the metal before installation.
              IT IS DIFFICULT TO PAINT OVERHEAD ONCE THE METAL IS
              INSTALLED.

              a.   Apply a high-quality oil/alkyd primer
                   formulated for metals.

              b.   Apply two coats of oil-based paint.

              NOTE:  BE SURE TO USE THE SAME MANUFACTURER FOR THE
              PRIMER AND THE PAINT.

         3.   If the ceiling is going into a high-humidity room,
              back-prime the sheets before installation.

3.03 ERECTION/INSTALLATION/APPLICATION

    A.   Furring the Ceiling:  

         1.   Using 3-inch nails, attach 3-inch wide furring
              strips to the ceiling around the perimeter of the
              room.  

              NOTE:  1x2 FURRING STRIPS ARE ADEQUATE, BUT 3-INCH
              STRIPS ARE BETTER.  REUSE HISTORIC OR EXISTING
              FURRING WHEN POSSIBLE.

              a.   Nail the strips as far from the wall as the
                   cornice will project.

              b.   If necessary, add a few nailers between the
                   joists to enable nailing the strips at the
                   correct position.

              NOTE:  ONLY DRIVE THE NAILS IN HALFWAY TO ALLOW FOR
              LATER SHIMMING AND LEVELLING.

         2.   Mark the centerlines for locating the furring
              strips.

              a.   Snap a chalkline from the center of the
                   ceiling, perpendicular to the joists.  

              b.   Snap additional chalklines every 12 inches on
                   center, parallel to the first line.  

              NOTE:  THE LINES NEED TO BE PRECISELY LOCATED
              BECAUSE THE METAL SHEETS ARE RIGID AND CANNOT BE
              ADAPTED TO NON-PARALLEL NAILING STRIPS.  

         3.   Nail up the middle furring strip.  BE SURE TO DRIVE
              THE NAILS IN ONLY HALFWAY.

         4.   Nail up additional strips on every other chalkline
              (every 24 inches on center).  BE SURE TO DRIVE THE
              NAILS IN ONLY HALFWAY.

         5.   Determine the locations where the 8-long sheets
              will connect, perpendicular to the strips already
              installed.

         6.   Nail furring strips at these 8-foot intervals to
              secure the edges of the sheets where they overlap.

              NOTE:  WHEN USING 2- INCH FURRING, THESE STRIPS
              WILL BE APPROXIMATELY 22 INCHES LONG.

         7.   Nail furring strips on the intermediate chalklines.
              These should be approximately 12 inches on center.

         8.   Check the level of the furring strips to see that
              they are in the same plane.  Shim strips as needed
              to level the ceiling.

              a.   Use a good straightedge to align the strips.

              b.   Move around the room holding the straightedge
                   against the strips.  Use the claw of the
                   hammer to pull high strips down into the same
                   plane as the lower strips.  

         9.   When all the strips are in line and in the same
              plane, drive all nails home.  Use care to avoid
              damaging metal ceiling components.

    C.   Installing the Metal:  The sheets are usually 2 feet wide
         by 8 feet long.  

         NOTE:  USE EXTREME CAUTION AND WEAR HEAVY GLOVES WHEN
         HANDLING METAL SHEETS AS THEIR EDGES ARE RAZOR-SHARP.
         GRIP THE EDGES OF THE SHEETS BETWEEN THE FINGERS AND THE
         THUMB.  NEVER LET THE SHEETS SLIDE ACROSS THE PALM.

         1.   Cut the metal panels with tinsnips as required.

         2.   Beginning at the furthest corner from the entrance
              to the room, secure the metal panels to the furring
              strips using 1-inch, flat-head nails.

              NOTE:  THE FIRST SHEETS INSTALLED ARE USUALLY THE
              STRAIGHTEST, SO IT IS BEST TO START IN THE AREA
              THAT WILL BE THE MOST VISIBLE.

              a.   Have an assistant hold each sheet flat using a
                   piece of furring.

              b.   Nail the ends of the each metal panel into the
                   short furring strips described in 3.03 A. 5.
                   above.  This provides a secure nailing surface
                   so that the ends of the panels will lay flat.

              c.   Drive the nail to one side of the decorative
                   button (bead).  

              d.   Nail the long edges of the metal panels to the
                   furring strips.  Again drive the nails to one
                   side of the bead.  

              e.   To line up the next sheet, overlap the beads
                   with the previous sheet (the way a ball and
                   socket fit).  Nail directly through the beads
                   on the overlapping sheet.  

              NOTE:  ANY SHEETS THAT NEED CUTTING MUST HAVE THE
              CUT EDGE TO THE WALL, SO IT WILL BE CONCEALED BY
              THE COVE MOLDING.

    D.   Installing the Cornice:  Generally the cornice is
         installed after the ceiling is in place.  

         1.   To ensure solid nailing, measure the cornice before
              furring for the new metal ceiling.  

              a.   Measure the depth of the cornice (down from
                   the new ceiling) at several points on the
                   wall.

              b.   Snap a chalkline at these marks.

              NOTE:  MAKE SURE THE CORNICE RUNS STRAIGHT ALONG
              THE WALL.  DEVIATIONS ARE MORE NOTICEABLE AT THE
              WALL EDGE THAN AT THE CEILING.

         2.   Locate and mark all of the studs in the wall for
              attaching furring strips.

         3.   Nail furring strips to the wall for attaching the
              cornice.  Try to attach the strips so that the
              joints occur at the studs.  This ensures a tighter
              connection.  If this is not feasible with each
              joint, however, use a small sheet-metal screw to
              attach the two pieces.

              NOTE:  WHEN A SMALLER CORNICE IS USED, IT CAN BE
              NAILED DIRECTLY TO THE WALL, OMITTING THE FURRING
              STRIPS.

         4.   Beginning at an inside (coped) corner and working
              toward the outside (mitered) corners, drive nails
              through the cornice's decorative buttons or bumps
              and into the furring strips.  

              NOTE:  BE SURE TO DRIVE THE NAILS IN ONLY HALFWAY
              UNTIL THE ENTIRE CORNICE IS IN PLACE.  IF THE NAILS
              CAN BE EASILY REMOVED, MINOR ADJUSTMENTS CAN BE
              MADE WITHOUT DAMAGING THE CORNICE.

              a.   Install the metal cornice so that it overlaps
                   the edge of the last metal ceiling panel
                   abutting the wall.

              b.   Nail the cornice to the furring strips at the
                   ceiling and the wall with nails spaced about
                   every 12 inches.  

         5.   Fit the inside and outside corners.  

              NOTE:  THIS IS THE MOST DIFFICULT PART OF
              INSTALLING A METAL CORNICE.

              a.   Make a template by cutting and fitting scrap
                   pieces of cornice by hand using tinsnips.
                   Make one template for a coped joint (inside
                   corners) and one for a mitered joint (outside
                   corners).  Position the scrap piece on the
                   chalkline when fitting and cutting to ensure
                   an accurate joint.

              b.   Once a template of each type has been made,
                   make subsequent ones by using the template as
                   a guide and tracing the pattern onto the
                   cornice with a marker.  

              NOTE:  SOME MANUFACTURERS OFFER PREFABRICATED
              PIECES FOR BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE CORNERS WHICH
              CAN SAVE TIME AND MONEY.

         6.   Before fitting the corner pieces, make a series of
              cuts along the edges (approximately 1/8-inch deep
              every 1/8-inch).  These cuts make is easier to bend
              the metal when the joint is tapped closed.

         7.   After the metal cornice is installed, seal any open
              joints by holding a wide chisel or the back of a 3-
              inch nail head against the joint and striking the
              point gently with a hammer.  

         8.   Fill any remaining open joints with glazing
              compound or latex caulk.

                         END OF SECTION