Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures
General Guidelines For The Fabrication And Installation Of Wood Windows
Federal Building/Uspo, Spokane, Wa - Gsa/Pbs
Doors And Windows
General Guidelines For The Fabrication And Installation Of Wood Windows
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION OF WOOD
WINDOWS ARE AN IMPORTANT DESIGN ELEMENT CONTRIBUTING TO A
BUILDING S ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. FOR HISTORIC BUILDINGS, STATE
HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICERS GENERALLY APPLY THE SECRETARY OF
INTERIOR S STANDARDS FOR REHABILITATION WHICH REQUIRE THAT
ORIGINAL MATERIAL BE REPAIRED AND RETAINED WHERE POSSIBLE.
CONDITION SURVEYS ARE TYPICALLY REQUIRED TO DETERMINE IF WINDOWS
ARE TOO DETERIORATED TO SAVE, BEFORE REPLACEMENTS WILL BE
CONSIDERED. REPLACEMENT WINDOWS SHOULD MATCH THE COLOR, SIZE AND
CONFIGURATION OF THE ORIGINAL WINDOWS AND THE MATERIAL.
A. This procedure includes general information relating to
the fabrication and installation of wood windows and
includes the following window types:
1. Double-Hung Window Units.
2. Casement Window Units.
3. Decorative Window Units.
4. Hopper Window Units.
5. Non-Operative (Fixed) Window Units.
6. Single-Hung Window Units.
B. See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
reviewed along with this procedure. These guidelines
cover the following sections:
1. Safety Precautions
2. Historic Structures Precautions
4. Quality Assurance
5. Delivery, Storage and Handling
6. Project/Site Conditions
7. Sequencing and Scheduling
8. General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)
These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
Preservation Officer (RHPO).
A. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100
Barr Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, (610) 832-9585
or FAX (610) 832-9555.
B. American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI), 1430
Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
C. Flat Glass Marketing Association (FGMA),
D. National Wood Window and Door Association (NWWDA),
1.03 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
A. Performance Grade Classification: Provide wood windows
that comply with requirements of NWWDA I.S. 2 for
performance grade 40.
B. Performance Grade Classification: Provide wood windows
that comply with requirements of NWWDA I.S. 2 for
performance grade 60.
C. Standards: Performance requirements for structural
performance, air infiltration, and water penetration for
wood windows are those specified in NWWDA I.S. 2
"Industry Standard for Wood Window Units".
D. Testing: Manufacturer's stock units of each grade of
required wood window shall have been tested by a
recognized testing laboratory or agency, in accordance
with ASTM E330 for structural performance. Test samples
shall comply with requirements in NWWDA I.S. 2 for test
sample sizes and methods.
E. Performance Requirements (Grade 60 Windows): Each
required window unit shall comply with the following
1. Air Infiltration: Not more than 0.10 cfm per sq.
ft. of overall frame area at an inward test
pressure of 1.57 lbf per sq. ft.
2. Water Penetration: No water penetration as defined
in the test method at an inward test pressure of
6.24 lbf per sq. ft.
3. Structural Performance: No glass breakage, damage
to hardware, or permanent deformation that would
impair operation of the unit or residual deflection
greater than 0.4 percent of the span at a positive
(inward) and negative (outward) test pressure of 60
lbf per sq. ft.
F. Forced Entry Resistance: Windows shall comply with
requirements for Grade 40 level of resistance to forced
entry when tested in accordance with ASTM F588.
A. Product Data: Submit product data for each type of wood
window specified, including standard construction
details, dimensions of individual components, profiles,
finishes, hardware, and accessories.
B. Shop Drawings: Submit shop drawings for each type of
window specified, including 1/4-inch scale wall
elevations, typical unit elevations at 3/4-inch scale,
glazing details, and fill-size details of typical
1.05 QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. Wood Window Standard: Comply with provisions of NWWDA
I.S. 2 for standards of performance and fabrication
workmanship for wood windows.
B. Glazing Standards: Comply with recommendations of the
Flat Glass Marketing Association (FGMA) "Glazing Manual"
and "Sealant Manual" except where more stringent
requirements are indicated. Refer to those publications
for definitions of glass and glazing terms not otherwise
defined in this section or referenced standards.
C. Safety Glass Standard: Where safety glass is indicated
or required by authorities having jurisdiction, provide
the type of products indicated which comply with ANSI
Z97.1 and testing requirements of 16 CFR Part 1201 for
category II materials.
D. Insulating Glass Certification Program: Provide
insulating glass units permanently marked either on
spacers at least one component pane of units with the
appropriate certification label of inspecting and testing
organization indicated below.
1. Insulating Glass Certification Council (IGCC)
2. Associated Laboratories, Inc. (ALI)
E. Single Source Responsibility: Provide wood windows
produced by a single fabricator who is capable of
indicating prior successful production of units similar
to those required.
1.06 PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS
A. Field Measurements:
1. Check actual window openings in construction work
by accurate field measurement before fabrication of
custom window units. Show recorded measurements on
final shop drawings.
2. Coordinate fabrication with construction progress
to avoid delay. Where necessary, proceed with
fabrication without measurements, and coordinate
tolerances to ensure proper fit of window units.
A. Submit a written warranty signed by the Manufacturer,
agreeing to repair or replace wood window units that fail
in materials or workmanship within the specified warranty
1. Failures include, but are not limited to,
structural failures, including excessive
deflection, excessive leakage, air infiltration,
failure of weatherstripping, faulty operation of
window sash or hardware, and deterioration of
metals, finishes, and other materials beyond normal
2. Warranty period for wood windows is 3 years after
the date of substantial completion.
3. This warranty shall be in addition to and not a
limitation of other rights the Government may have
against the Contractor under the Contract
A. Pella Corp.
102 Main Street
Pella, IA 50219
B. Andersen Corporation
100 Fourth Avenue North
Bayport, MN 55003
A. General: Comply with requirements of NWWDA I.S. 2.
B. Wood: Clear Ponderosa Pine or other suitable fine-
grained lumber that has been kiln-dried to a moisture
content of 6 to 12 percent at time of fabrication and is
free of visible finger-joints, blue stain, knots, pitch-
pockets and surface checks larger than 1/8-inch deep by
1. Lumber shall be water-repellent preservative
treated after machining in accordance with NWWDA
C. Aluminum Cladding: Provide manufacturer's standard
aluminum formed sheet or extruded cladding mechanically
bonded to exterior wood sash and frame members.
1. Trim members: Aluminum clad wood trim.
2. Finish: Provide factory-applied baked-on enamel
a. Color: Custom color as selected by the
Architect from the manufacturer's standard
D. Anchors, Clips, and Accessories: Fabricate anchors,
clips and window accessories of aluminum, non-magnetic
stainless steel, or hot-dip zinc coated steel complying
with ASTM A123; provide strength sufficient to withstand
design pressure indicated.
E. Fasteners: Comply with NWWDA I.S. 2 for fabrication and
with manufacturer's recommendations and standard industry
practices for type and size of installation fasteners.
1. Use zinc-coated or nonferrous nails and screws for
window fabrication and installation.
2. Use brass screws for hardware and accessory
F. Hardware: Provide the manufacturer's standard hardware,
necessary to properly operate, tightly close, and
securely lock windows. Do not use aluminum in frictional
contact with other metals.
1. Provide solid bronze hardware, with plated steel or
brass/bronze operating bars and rods.
G. Compression Weatherstripping: Provide compressible
weatherstripping, designed for permanently resilient
sealing under bumper or wiper action, completely
concealed when sash is closed.
H. Glass and Glazing Materials: Provide the manufacturer's
standard clear sealed insulating safety glazing material
that complies with ANSI Z97.1.
1. Insulating glass unit shall have metal spacers,
sealed between the panes, behind each muntin bar.
I. Glazing Seal: Provide the manufacturer's standard
extruded vinyl or butyl glazing gasket providing
J. Sliding Weatherstripping: Provide woven pile
weatherstripping of polypropylene, wool, or nylon pile,
with resin-impregnated backing fabric, and aluminum
backing strip; comply with AAMA 701.2.
A. General: Comply with minimum operating requirements of
NWWDA I.S. 2.
B. Casement Windows: Provide units containing side-hinged
swing-out sash, with the following equipment and
1. Hook or cam-type latch and lever, for operation
without screen removal.
a. For sash more than 48 inches high, provide 3
extension hinges and 2-point latching
C. Double-Hung Windows: Provide units containing 2
balanced, vertically-sliding sash with the following
equipment and hardware.
1. 2 pair concealed counterbalancing mechanism.
2. Latch at meeting rail.
3. Lift handle on the lower rail.
D. Hopper Windows: Provide units containing bottom-hinged
(hopper) sash with the following equipment and hardware:
1. 2 balance support arms and pivots with friction
2. Cam latch or other latching hardware with lever
handle or pull. Provide latch with eye for pole
operation for operable sash located more than 6
feet above the floor.
A. General: Except to the extent that more stringent
requirements are indicated, provide the manufacturer's
standard fabrication of units. Comply with indicated
standards. Include a complete system for assembly of
components and anchorage of window units.
1. Comply with requirements of referenced standards
for moisture content of lumber at time of
fabrication and for relative humidity conditions in
the installation areas.
B. Fabricate windows to produce units that are reglazable
without dismantling sash framing. Provide openings and
mortises precut, where possible, to receive hardware and
C. Each window unit includes sash, frame, stops, sill
(including undersill or nosing), and moldings, integral
mullions and muntins, hardware, and accessories.
1. Provide weatherstripping at perimeter of each
a. For double/single-hung sash, provide
weatherstripping only at horizontal rails of
2. Provide glazing stops, nailed or snap-on,
coordinated with glass selection and glazing system
3. Preglazed Window Units: Preglaze window units at
the shop before delivery.
D. Complete fabrication, assembly, finishing, hardware
application, and other work before shipment to the
project site, to the maximum extent possible.
Disassemble components only as necessary for shipment and
installation. Where necessary for fitting at site,
provide ample allowance for scribing, trimming, and
E. Wood Finish: Provide the following finish on exposed
wood in units:
1. Shop-Primed Units: Provide the fabricator's
standard shop prime coat on exterior wood surfaces
A. Inspect openings before beginning installation. Verify
that the rough or masonry opening is correct and the sill
plate is level. Do not proceed with installation of
window units until unsatisfactory conditions have been
1. Masonry surfaces shall be visibly dry, and free of
excess mortar, sand, and other construction debris.
2. Wood frame walls shall be dry, clean, sound and
well-nailed, free of voids, and without offsets at
joints. Ensure that nail heads are driven flush
with surfaces in the opening and within 3 inches of
3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION
A. Comply with manufacturer's instructions and
recommendations for installation of window units,
hardware, operators, accessories, and other window
B. Set units plumb, level, true to line, without warp or
rack of frames or sash. Provide proper support and
anchor securely in place.
C. Set sill members in a bed of compound or with joint
fillers or gaskets as indicated, to provide weathertight
construction. Coordinate window installation with wall
flashings and other built-in components.
A. Adjust operating sash and hardware to provide a tight fit
at contact points and weatherstripping, and to provide
smooth operation and a weathertight closure. Lubricate
hardware and moving parts.
B. Clean interior and exterior surfaces promptly after
installation of windows. Take care to avoid damage to
protective coatings and finishes. Remove excess glazing
and sealants, dirt, and other substances.
C. Clean glass of preglazed window units promptly after
installation. Wash and polish glass on both faces not
more than 4 days prior to date scheduled for final
inspection. Comply with manufacturer's recommendations
for final cleaning and maintenance.
D. Remove and replace glass that is broken, chipped,
cracked, abraded or damaged in other ways during
construction period, including natural causes, accidents,
A. Institute and maintain protection and other precautions
required through remainder of construction period to
ensure that, except for normal weathering, window units
will be without damage or deterioration at the time of
END OF SECTION