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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Installing New Glazed Wall Tiles

Procedure code:

0931010R

Source:

Federal Building/Warehouse, Wisconsin - Gsa

Division:

Finishes

Section:

Ceramic Tile

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Installing New Glazed Wall Tiles



INSTALLING NEW GLAZED WALL TILES TO MATCH EXISTING CERAMIC TILE  


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on installing new glazed
         wall tiles to replace lost or severely damaged portions
         of existing ceramic tile, or to enlarge or alter an area
         of existing/historic ceramic tile walls.  GENERALLY, THIS
         WORK SHOULD BE ACCOMPLISHED BY A EXPERIENCED CONTRACTOR.

    B.   Ceramic tile companies were emerging in the late 1870s,
         largely manufacturing encaustic tiles.  White and colored
         ceramic tiles became available in the mid-1890s.  Also
         available by the mid-1890s were decorative tiles with
         colored ready-mixed glazes.  

    C.   The color of glazed tile comes from the glaze itself, as
         opposed to the clay, oxides or additives, which provide
         the color for unglazed tiles.  Glazes were usually
         applied by dipping the clay piece into the glaze or by
         brush applying the glaze over the surface.  Common
         materials for making glazes included white lead, flint,
         or china clays mixed with metallic oxides to provide the
         color.  A wide range of colors could be produced from
         different combinations.

    D.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure. These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).

1.02 REFERENCES

    A.   American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI), 1430
         Broadway, New York, NY  10018.

    B.   TCA Installation Guidelines: TCA "Handbook for Ceramic
         Tile Installation" comply with TCA installation methods
         indicated.

1.03 SUBMITTALS

    A.   Product Data: Product data for each type of product
         specified.

    B.   Samples: Samples for initial selection purposes in form
         of manufacturer's color charts consisting of actual tiles
         or sections of tile showing full range of colors,
         textures, and patterns available for each type and
         composition of tile indicated. Include samples of grout
         and accessories involving color selection.

1.04 QUALITY ASSURANCE

    A.   Installer Qualifications: Engage an experienced Installer
         who has successfully completed tile installations similar
         in material, design, and extent to that indicated for
         project.

    B.   Single-Source Responsibility for Tile: Obtain each color,
         grade, finish, type, composition and variety of tile from
         a single source with resources to provide products of
         consistent quality in appearance and physical properties
         without delaying progress of the work.

    C.   Single-Source Responsibility for Setting and Grouting
         Materials: Obtain ingredients of a uniform quality from
         one manufacturer for each cementitious and admixture
         component and from one source or producer for each
         aggregate.

1.05 DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING

    A.   Packing and Shipping: Deliver and store packaged
         materials in original containers with seals unbroken and
         labels intact until time of use. Comply with requirement
         of ANSI A137.1 for labeling sealed tile packages.

    B.   Storage and Protection:

         1.   Prevent damage or contamination to materials by
              water, freezing, foreign matter, and other causes.

         2.   Handle tile with temporary protective coating on
              exposed surfaces to prevent coated surfaces from
              contacting backs or edges of other units. If
              despite these precautions coating does contact
              bonding surfaces of tile, remove coating from
              bonding surfaces before setting tile.

    C.   Extra Materials:  

         1.   Deliver extra materials to Owner. Furnish extra
              materials that match products installed as
              described below, packaged with protective covering
              for storage and identified with labels clearly
              describing contents.

              a.   Tiel and Trim Units: Furnish quantity of full-
                   size units equal to 3 percent of amount
                   installed, for each type, composition, color,
                   pattern, and size.

1.06 PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS

    A.   Environmental Requirements: Maintain environmental
         conditions and protect work during and after installation
         to comply with referenced standards and manufacturer's
         printed recommendations.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MANUFACTURERS

    A.   American-Olean Tile Co., Inc.
         1000 Cannon Ave.
         P.O. Box 271
         Lansdale, PA  19446-0271
         215/855-1111

    B.   Bostik, Inc.
         Bostik Construction Products Div.
         211 Boston St.
         Middleton, MA 01949
         800/726-7845

    C.   Custom Building Products
         800/282-8786

2.02 MATERIALS

    A.   ANSI Standard for Tile Installation Materials: Comply
         with ANSI standard referenced with products and materials
         indicated for setting and grouting.

    B.   ANSI Standard for Ceramic Tile:

         1.   Comply with ANSI A137.1 "American National Standard
              Specifications for Ceramic Tile" for types,
              compositions, and grades of tile indicated.

         2.   Furnish tile complying with "Standard Grade"
              requirements unless otherwise indicated.

    C.   Colors, Textures and Patterns: Where manufacturer's
         standard products are indicated for tile, grout, and
         other products requiring selection of colors, surface
         textures, patterns, and other appearance characteristics,
         provide specific products or materials complying with the
         following requirements:

         1.   Match existing tile glaze color, texture and
              pattern as closely as possible.  RHPO approval is
              required.

         2.   Provide tile trim and accessories that match color
              and finish of adjoining flat tile.  RHPO approval
              is required.

    D.   Factory Blending: For tile exhibiting color variations
         within the ranges selected during sample submittals,
         blend tile in factory and package accordingly so that
         tile units taken from one package show the same range in
         colors as those taken from other packages and match
         approved samples.

    E.   Mounting: Where factory-mounted tile is required, provide
         back or edge-mounted tile assemblies as standard with
         manufacturer unless another mounting method is indicated.

    F.   Tile Products:

         1.   Unglazed Ceramic Mosaic Tile as manufactured by
              American Olean Tile Co., Inc., Dale-Tile
              Corporation, U.S. Ceramic Tile Co., or approved
              equal.  Provide factory-mounted flat tile complying
              with the following requirements:

              a.   Nominal Facial Dimensions: To match existing
                   dimensions.

              b.   Nominal Thickness: To match existing
                   thickness.

              c.   Face: To match existing finish.

         2.   Glazed wall tile as manufactured by American Olean
              Tile Co., Inc., Dale-Tile Corporation, U.S. Ceramic
              Tile Co., or approved equal. Provide flat tile
              complying with the following requirements:

              a.   Nominal Facial Dimensions: To match existing
                   dimensions.

              b.   Nominal Thickness: To match existing
                   thickness.

              c.   Face: To match existing finish.

              d.   Mounting: Factory back-mounted.

         3.   Trim Units: Provide tile trim units to match
              characteristics of adjoining flat tile and to
              comply with following requirements:

              a.   Size: As indicated, coordinated with sizes and
                   coursing of adjoining flat tile where
                   applicable.

              b.   Shapes: As required to match existing tile
                   conditions and as selected from manufacturer's
                   standard shapes.

    G.   Setting Materials: Portland Cement Mortar Installation
         Materials: Provide materials complying with ANSI A108.1
         and as specified below.

         1.   Latex Adhesive (water emulsion) described below,
              serving as replacement for part or all of gauging
              water, of type specifically recommended by latex
              additive manufacturer for use with job-mixed
              Portland cement mortar bed, as manufactured by
              American Olean Tile Co., Inc., Bostik Construction
              Products Division, Custom Building Products, or
              approved equal.

              a.   Latex Additive: Manufacturer's standard.

         2.   Organic Adhesive:  ANSI A136.1, Type I, as
              manufactured by American Olean Tile Co., Inc.,
              Bostik Construction Products Division, Custom
              Building Products, or approved equal.  

    H.   Grouting Materials:

         1.   Commercial Portland Cement Grout: ANSI A118.6,
              color as indicated, as manufactured by American
              Olean Tile Co., Inc., Bostik Construction Products
              Division, Custom Building Products, or approved
              equal.  

         2.   Dry-Set Grout: ANSI A118.6, color as indicated, as
              manufactured by American Olean Tile Co., Inc.,
              Bostik Construction Products Division, Custom
              Building Products, or approved equal.  

    I.   Mixing Mortars and Grout: Mix mortars and grouts to
         comply with requirements of referenced standards and
         manufacturers including those for accurate proportioning
         of materials, water, or additive content; type of mixing
         equipment, selection of mixer speeds, mixing containers,
         mixing time and other procedures needed to produce
         mortars and grouts of uniform quality with optimum
         performance characteristics for application indicated.


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 EXAMINATION

    A.   Verification of Conditions:

         1.   Examine substrates and areas where tile will be
              installed, with Installer present, for compliance
              with requirements for installation tolerances and
              other conditions affecting performance of installed
              tile.

              a.   Verify that substrates for setting tile are
                   firm, dry, clean, and free from oil or waxy
                   films and curing compounds.

              b.   Verify that installation of grounds, anchors,
                   recessed frames, electrical and mechanical
                   units of work, and similar items located in or
                   behind tile have been completed before
                   installing tile.

         2.   For tile exhibiting color variations within the
              ranges selected during sample submittals, verify
              that tile has been blended in factory and packaged
              accordingly so that tile units taken from one
              package show the same range in colors as those
              taken from other packages and match approved
              samples.  If not factory blended, either return to
              manufacturer or blend tiles at project site before
              installing.

         3.   Do not proceed with installation until
              unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    A.   MATCH THE HISTORIC CHARACTER AND PATTERN OF THE CERAMIC
         TILE IN ALL SPACES CONTAINING OR CONTIGUOUS WITH EXISTING
         TILE.

    B.   ANSI Tile Installation Standard: Comply with parts of
         ANSI 108 series of tile installation standards included
         under "American National Standard Specifications for
         Installation of Ceramic Tile" that apply to type of
         setting and grouting materials and methods indicated.

    C.   Extend tile work into recesses and under or behind
         equipment and fixtures to form a complete covering
         without interruptions except as otherwise shown.
         Terminate work neatly at obstructions, edges, and corners
         without disrupting pattern or joint alignments.

    D.   Accurately form intersections and returns. Perform
         cutting and drilling of tile without marring visible
         surfaces. Carefully grind cut edges of tile abutting
         trim, finish, or built-in items for straight aligned
         joints. Fit tile closely to electrical outlets, piping,
         fixtures, and other penetrations so that plates, collars,
         or covers overlap tile.

    E.   Jointing Pattern: Unless otherwise shown, lay tile in
         grid pattern. Align joints when adjoining tiles on floor,
         base, walls, and trim are same size. Lay out tile work
         and center tile fields in both directions in each space
         or on each wall area. Adjust to minimize tile cutting.
         Provide uniform joint widths unless otherwise shown.

         1.   For tile mounted in sheets, make joints between
              tile sheets same width as joints within tile sheets
              so that extent of each sheet is not apparent in
              finished work.

    F.   Lay out tile wainscots to next full tile beyond
         dimensions indicated.

    G.   Grout tile to comply with the requirements of the
         following installation standards:

         1.   For ceramic tile grouts (sand-Portland cement, dry-
              set, commercial Portland cement, and latex-Portland
              cement grouts), comply with ANSI A108.10.

    H.   Wall Tile Installation Methods:

         1.   Install types of tile designated for wall
              application to comply with requirements indicated
              below for setting-bed methods, TCA installation
              methods related to subsurface wall conditions, and
              grout types:

              a.   Organic Adhesive: ANSI A108.4

              b.   Solid Backing, Interior: TCA W223.

3.03 ADJUSTING/CLEANING

    A.   Cleaning: Upon completion of placement and grouting,
         clean all ceramic tile surfaces so they are free of
         foreign matter.

         1.   Remove latex-Portland cement grout residue from
              tile as soon as possible.

         2.   Unglazed tile may be cleaned with acid solutions
              only when permitted by tile and grout
              manufacturer's printed instructions, but no sooner
              than 14 days after installation. Protect metal
              surfaces, cast iron, and vitreous plumbing fixtures
              from effects of acid cleaning. Flush surface with
              clean water before and after cleaning.

    B.   Finished Tile Work: Leave finished installation clean and
         free of cracked, chipped, broken, unbonded, and otherwise
         defective tile work.

    C.   Provide final protection and maintain conditions in a
         manner acceptable to manufacturer and installer that
         ensures that tile is without damage or deterioration at
         time of Substantial Completion.

         1.   When recommended by tile manufacturer, apply a
              protective coat of neutral protective cleaner to
              completed tile walls and floors. Protect installed
              tile work with kraft paper or other heavy covering
              during construction period to prevent staining,
              damage, and wear.

         2.   Prohibit foot and wheel traffic from tiled floors
              for at least 7 days after grouting is completed.

    D.   Before final inspection, remove protective coverings and
         rinse neutral cleaner from tile surfaces.

                         END OF SECTION