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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Reducing Lead-Based Paint Hazards Using Abatement Techniques On Windows

Procedure code:

0990002R

Source:

1994 Crm, Vol. 17, No. 4/1997 Windows Conference Paper

Division:

Finishes

Section:

Painting

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Reducing Lead-Based Paint Hazards Using Abatement Techniques On Windows



REDUCING LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARDS USING ABATEMENT TECHNIQUES ON
WINDOWS


THE 1995 HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD) GUIDELINES REGARDING
THE EVALUATION AND CONTROL OF LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARDS WERE
DEVELOPED IN ORDER TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE IN LEAD ABATEMENT/REDUCTION
WORK REQUIRED FOR FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING PROJECTS.  THOUGH
THESE GUIDELINES ARE NOT ENFORCED ON PRIVATE HOUSING PROJECTS OR
PROJECTS INVOLVING OTHER BUILDING TYPES, THEY ARE A WELL-RECOGNIZED
REFERENCE FOR MAKING BUILDINGS LEAD-SAFE, AND THEIR USE AS A
RESOURCE IS RECOMMENDED IN ANY CONSTRUCTION PROJECT REQUIRING
LEAD- REDUCTION WORK.  FOR THIS REASON, THESE GUIDELINES ARE
FREQUENTLY REFERENCED IN THIS AND OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES.

This procedure describes two methods of removing lead-based paint
from windows using abatement techniques.  These include window
replacement and paint removal.
    Abatement is classified by HUD as any treatment for
    eliminating lead-based paint that is considered permanent, or
    rather, capable of lasting twenty years.  This may include any
    of the following:  Complete removal of the lead-based paint;
    removal and replacement of the lead-based paint component;
    enclosure of the component or surface; or application of an
    encapsulant coating.  
-    For historic buildings, "Hazard Abatement" is recommended and
    involves eliminating the hazard rather than the entire feature
    or all of the lead-based paint.  This type of action is more
    economical and serves to protect more of the original building
    fabric from being damaged or destroyed.
    Hazard abatement may be achieved by means of removing paint
    from SELECTED surfaces, removing SELECTED features,
    encapsulating DETERIORATED painted surfaces, removing and
    replacing CONTAMINATED soil, and disposal of all hazardous
    waste according to federal, state and local safety
    regulations.
-    For guidance in evaluating mitigation strategies for lead-
    based paint hazard reduction, see 09900-03-S.  For general
    protection measures in lead-based paint hazard reduction work,
    see 09900-10-S.  For guidance in reducing lead-based paint
    hazards using interim control techniques or a combination of
    abatement and interim control techniques on windows, see
    09900-03-R and 09900-04-R respectively.

Window Replacement:
    Removal and replacement of the entire window unit is a common
    activity justified by the desire to completely eliminate lead-
    based paint hazards and to improve energy efficiency.  
    This practice is not preferred in historic preservation
    projects, as it is not only costly, but it can result in the
    loss of significant features that are otherwise in good
    condition.
   
Paint Removal Techniques:
    Complete paint removal from SELECTED surfaces, which have been
    determined to pose a threat as a source of contamination, is
    considered a "hazard abatement" as described above.  
    Various methods of paint removal may be used, but note the
    cautions listed below for each.  Removal of loose paint only
    using wet sanding and scraping is considered an interim
    control technique, not abatement.
    Off-site stripping in a controlled environment is preferred.
    On-site stripping requires a high degree of worker knowledge
    and training in lead paint abatement safety.
    Heat Guns:
         USE CAUTION!  At operating temperatures above 1,100
         degrees F., lead fumes may be produced.  
         Heat guns may be safely used at lower temperatures, but
         the required scraping that must accompany this  produces
         airborne lead dust that can be a hazard to the worker if
         proper respiratory protection is not provided.
    Mechanical Tools:
         Recommended only with HEPA vacuum attachments.  
         AVOID MECHANICAL OR ABRASIVE PAINT REMOVAL TECHNIQUES AS
         WELL AS DRY SCRAPING, AS THESE METHODS GENERATE EXCESSIVE
         AMOUNTS OF LEAD DUST.
    Chemical Strippers:
         Caustic and non-caustic strippers are acceptable.  This
         method usually generates the least amount of airborne
         dust. Caustic strippers must be carefully neutralized.
         METHYLENE CHLORIDE PAINT STRIPPERS ARE DISCOURAGED AS
         THIS CHEMICAL IS BANNED IN SOME STATES SUCH AS
         CALIFORNIA.  REGULATORY INFORMATION AS WELL AS
         ALTERNATIVE OR EQUIVALENT CHEMICALS MAY BE REQUESTED FROM
         THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) REGIONAL OFFICE
         AND/OR THE STATE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY.
         For additional guidance in paint removal using chemicals,
         see 04211-14-R, 05010-17-R and 06400-07-R.
         
                         END OF SECTION