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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Protection Measures For Lead-Based Paint Hazard-Reduction Work

Procedure code:

0990010S

Source:

1994 Crm, Vol. 17, No. 4/1997 Windows Conference Paper

Division:

Finishes

Section:

Painting

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Protection Measures For Lead-Based Paint Hazard-Reduction Work



GENERAL PROTECTION MEASURES FOR LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARD-REDUCTION
WORK


THE 1995 HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD) GUIDELINES REGARDING
THE EVALUATION AND CONTROL OF LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARDS WERE
DEVELOPED IN ORDER TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE IN LEAD ABATEMENT/REDUCTION
WORK REQUIRED FOR FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING PROJECTS.  THOUGH
THESE GUIDELINES ARE NOT ENFORCED ON PRIVATE HOUSING PROJECTS OR
PROJECTS INVOLVING OTHER BUILDING TYPES, THEY ARE A WELL-RECOGNIZED
REFERENCE FOR MAKING BUILDINGS LEAD-SAFE, AND THEIR USE AS A
RESOURCE IS RECOMMENDED IN ANY CONSTRUCTION PROJECT REQUIRING LEAD-
REDUCTION WORK.  FOR THIS REASON, THESE GUIDELINES ARE FREQUENTLY
REFERENCED IN THIS AND OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES.


This procedure includes guidance on protecting the workers, the
building environment and the occupants during lead-reduction work.
The most important part of any protection plan, which affects all
three of these areas, is dust control.
    The primary source of lead-based paint poisoning comes from
    lead dust.
    The presence of lead-based paint is not considered a hazard
    unless the paint is in poor condition (chipping, peeling,
    flaking), or covers a type of surface that could present a
    condition for contamination, such as those considered
    abrasion, impact and friction surfaces, or chewable surfaces
    (in the case of children).  
    Some building features are more prone to abrasion, impact or
    friction.  These might include windows, doors, floors, stair
    treads, risers and balustrade, and trimwork such as baseboards
    chair rails and door trim.

As a direct result of the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard
Reduction Act of 1992 (otherwise known as Title X), federal
agencies including HUD, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have
established safety standards and training guidelines for lead
abatement workers.  
    OSHA has established regulations to protect workers from
    dangerous levels of lead exposure.
    EPA has worked with local authorities to regulate the disposal
    of hazardous waste.  
    HUD has published guidelines for evaluating and controlling
    lead-based paint hazards in Housing - a valuable resource for
    evaluating lead-based paint mitigation strategies (see 09900-
    03-S for guidance).

Protection should focus on three primary areas: Worker protection,
containment of dust and debris, and adequate clean-up of the work
areas.  General protection measures are listed below.  For guidance
as it relates more specifically to abatement or interim control
techniques, see 09900-02-R, 09900-03-R and 09900-04-R.
    Educating and training the workers to use "low-dust" work
    techniques is vital to reducing airborne dust:
         Proper paint removal techniques should be followed.  See
         also 09900-02-R, 09900-03-R and 09900-04-R for guidance.
         Use wet sanding and wet scraping methods instead of dry
         methods.
         Wet sanding consists of misting the surface with water
         followed by sanding with a sponge block saturated with
         de-glossing liquid.
         Wet scraping consists of misting the painted surface
         before scraping.
         There are also sanders available designed with integral
         HEPA  vacuums.
    Containment of airborne dust and debris is critical to
    reducing lead-based paint contamination:
         For windows, proper containment can be accomplished by
         sealing the opposite side of the window on which the work
         is being performed and adhering one layer of plastic
         sheeting a minimum of five feet beyond the perimeter of
         the window.
-    Proper clean-up methods are necessary to ensure that a lead-
    safe environment is maintained:
         HEPA vacuums are recommended over dry sweeping or
         conventional vacuum cleaners, as the latter can spread
         lead dust rather than remove it from the environment.
         Wet cleaning or mopping using a high phosphate cleaner,
         such as tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) or other cleaner
         designed for use on surfaces coated with lead-based
         paint, is recommended.  See Chapter 14 of the 1995 HUD
         Guidelines for more detailed cleaning procedures.

For more extensive guidance concerning all construction, alteration
and repair work where an employee may be occupationally exposed to
lead, see the U.S. Department of Labor OSHA Regulations (Standards-
29 CFR) - 1926.62 - Lead (Occupational Health and Environmental
Controls).

                         END OF SECTION