Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures
Reducing Lead-Based Paint Hazards Using Interim Control Techniques On Windows
1994 Crm, Vol. 17, No. 4/1997 Windows Conference Paper
Reducing Lead-Based Paint Hazards Using Interim Control Techniques On Windows
REDUCING LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARDS USING INTERIM CONTROL TECHNIQUES
THE 1995 HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD) GUIDELINES REGARDING
THE EVALUATION AND CONTROL OF LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARDS WERE
DEVELOPED IN ORDER TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE IN LEAD ABATEMENT/REDUCTION
WORK REQUIRED FOR FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING PROJECTS. THOUGH
THESE GUIDELINES ARE NOT ENFORCED ON PRIVATE HOUSING PROJECTS OR
PROJECTS INVOLVING OTHER BUILDING TYPES, THEY ARE A WELL-RECOGNIZED
REFERENCE FOR MAKING BUILDINGS LEAD-SAFE, AND THEIR USE AS A
RESOURCE IS RECOMMENDED IN ANY CONSTRUCTION PROJECT REQUIRING LEAD-
REDUCTION WORK. FOR THIS REASON, THESE GUIDELINES ARE FREQUENTLY
REFERENCED IN THIS AND OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES.
A. This procedure includes guidance on removing lead-based
paint from windows using interim control techniques.
B. Interim controls are temporary methods of controlling
lead-based paint hazards and include special cleaning and
dust removal procedures, stabilization of the existing
paint film, and special treatment of friction and impact
surfaces. Abatement, on the other hand, is considered to
be a permanent treatment for eliminating lead-based paint
and may include complete removal of the paint or the
C. Interim control techniques are preferred over abatement
in preservation work since more original material can be
retained and preserved. However, regular maintenance is
required and necessary in order for this type of strategy
to be successful. This works well in office environments
with dedicated cleaning and maintenance staff.
D. For guidance in evaluating mitigation strategies for
lead-hazard reduction, see 09900-03-S. For general
protection measures in lead-based paint hazard reduction
work, see 09900-10-S. For guidance in reducing lead-
based paint hazards using abatement techniques or a
combination of abatement and interim control techniques
on windows, see 09900-02-R and 09900-04-R respectively.
E. See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
reviewed along with this procedure. These guidelines
cover the following sections:
1. Safety Precautions
2. Historic Structures Precautions
4. Quality Assurance
5. Delivery, Storage and Handling
6. Project/Site Conditions
7. Sequencing and Scheduling
8. General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)
These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
Preservation Officer (RHPO).
A. Red Devil, Inc.
2400 Vauxhall Road
Union, NJ 07083-1933
B. ProSoCo, Inc.
755 Minnesota Avenue
P.O. Box 1578
Kansas City, KS 66117
800/255-4255 or 913/281-2700
C. Diedrich Technologies, Inc.
7373 South 6th Street
Oak Creek (Milwaukee), WI 53154
800/323-3565 or 414/764-0058
NOTE: Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
name. This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
the same chemical sold under its chemical name. The grade of
purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
for general cleaning or stain removal work, and these products
should be purchased when available, as they tend to be less
expensive. Common names are indicated below by an asterisk
A. Trisodium Phosphate (TSP):
NOTE: THIS CHEMICAL IS BANNED IN SOME STATES SUCH AS
CALIFORNIA. REGULATORY INFORMATION AS WELL AS
ALTERNATIVE OR EQUIVALENT CHEMICALS MAY BE REQUESTED FROM
THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) REGIONAL OFFICE
AND/OR THE STATE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY.
1. Strong base-type powdered cleaning material sold
under brand names.
2. Other chemical or common names include Sodium
Orthophosphate; Tribasic sodium phosphate;
Trisodium orthophosphate; TSP*; Phosphate of soda*;
(also sold under brand names such as Red Devil).
3. Potential Hazards: CORROSIVE TO FLESH.
4. Available from chemical supply house, grocery store
or supermarket or hardware store.
5. Commercial TSP supplied by Red Devil, Inc.
B. Chemical paint stripper (ProSoCo, Inc., Diedrich
Technologies, or approved equal).
C. Clean, potable water
D. Masking tape
E. Primer and paint (use same manufacturer)
F. Encapsulant paint (only for sills)
G. Deglossing agent
H. Screws or wood stops
I. Razor blade
A. Putty knife
B. Sponge sanding block
3.01 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION
A. Cleaning and Dust Control: Clean window sills and troughs
frequently (at least twice-a-week) by wiping the surface
with a sponge or cloth soaked in a mixture of TSP and
NOTE: CLEANING WILL ONLY BE EFFECTIVE IF PERFORMED ON A
REGULAR, SCHEDULED BASIS.
B. Paint Stabilization: Similar to typical paint maintenance
except for the use of water to control the spread of led
6. Mist the surface with water and scrape off loose
paint using a putty knife.
7. Feather edges using a sponge sanding block
saturated with a deglossing agent.
8. Apply a good quality primer and top coat of paint.
Use the same manufacturer.
NOTE: THE APPLICATION OF AN ENCAPSULANT PAINT IS
NOT CONSIDERED AN INTERIM CONTROLS, BUT RATHER AN
ABATEMENT TECHNIQUE. ENCAPSULANT PAINTS ARE APPLIED
SO AS TO COMPLETELY COVER THE POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS
AREA - TRAPPING ANY FAILING PAINT LAYERS UNDER ITS
DURABLE, ELASTIC SKIN. THESE PAINTS ARE ALSO QUITE
EXPENSIVE AND CAN OBSCURE FINE DETAILING BECAUSE OF
ITS THICK CONSISTENCY.
C. Treatment of Friction and Impact Surfaces: Friction and
impact surfaces on windows include components that can
become abraded each time the window is opened or closed,
such as the sash, the jamb, the parting bead and the
1. Mist the interior stop for the lower sash with
2. Score the edges with a razor blade and remove the
stop. NOTE: IF DESIRED, APPLY A STRIP OF MASKING
TAPE OVER THE EDGE BEFORE SCORING. THIS WILL AID
IN CATCHING ANY PAINT THAT IS CHIPPED IN THE
3. Replace the stop, or if it is desirable to keep the
existing stop, treat the friction surface as
described below for the treatment of the sash.
4. Remove the sash. If desired, both the upper an
lower sash may be treated alike. If the upper sash
is painted shut, treatment of the lower sash only
5. Remove the paint from the friction edges - where
the sash meets or rubs against other window
components. Remove the paint at least an inch on
all faces of the sash. The edge facing the jamb
should not need treatment, as it is typically not
a. Wet plane or wet scrape to remove the paint;
mist the surface with water and remove loose
paint using a putty knife or other tool for
b. Feather the edges using a sponge block
saturated with a de-glossing agent.
6. Remove paint from the friction surfaces of the jamb
and parting stop by wet planing and wet sanding as
7. Apply a good quality primer and top coat to the
window components and reassemble the window.
D. Treatment of "Chewable and Accessible" Surfaces: These
are most notably window sills or other similarly
projecting feature at an accessible height.
1. Abatement level treatment is recommended for these
types of surfaces and includes completely removing
the lead-based paint using a chemical stripper, wet
scraping or wet sanding.
2. Or, apply an encapsulant paint to the surface
following manufacturer's instructions. This method
would be preferred if the sill has some significant
detailing or if, for some reason, it is important
to retain the existing paint/material.
NOTE: SILLS ARE GENERALLY THE ONLY WINDOW FEATURES
AN ENCAPSULANT PAINT IS RECOMMENDED FOR USE ON.
THESE TYPES OF PAINTS ARE NOT EFFECTIVE ON FRICTION
SURFACES AND ARE, THEREFORE, NOT TYPICALLY
RECOMMENDED FOR WINDOW WORK.
F. Fixing Windows in Place: If desired, this type of
temporary control can eliminate contamination from
friction surfaces. This method is not desirable for
buildings in which the opportunity for fresh outside air
1. Anchor the sash to the channel of the jamb using
the inconspicuous placement of metal hardware or
2. After the window has been fixed in place, treat the
individual features using paint stabilization
techniques or encapsulant paints described above.
END OF SECTION