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2105.2 CIO P GSA Section 508 Procedures Handbook

Date: 12/16/2009
Status: Validated
Outdated on: 12/16/2019

GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION                                              

          Washington, DC 20405                                                                      

CIO P 2105.2

December 16, 2009

 

 

GSA POLICY AND PROCEDURE

 

 

SUBJECT:  GSA Section 508 Procedures Handbook

 

1.  Purpose. This Order issues and transmits Handbook (HB), GSA Section 508 Procedures.

 

2.  Cancellation.  None.

 

3.  Applicability.  The provisions of this order are applicable to all General Services Administration (GSA) associates responsible for the acquisition, management, and/or use of EIT resources. This order applies regardless of whether individual service and staff offices currently employ persons with disabilities.

 

4.  Background.  Federal law requires that people with disabilities have equal access to and use of public information resources and/or work-related Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) resources.  In 1998, Congress passed amendments to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 USC § 794d) to create binding, enforceable standards; establish compliance procedures; and institute reporting requirements for all Federal agencies.  Section 508 prohibits Federal agencies from procuring, developing, maintaining, or using EIT that is not accessible to people with disabilities, subject to an undue burden defense.  If it is properly determined by the agency that meeting the Section 508 standards would impose an undue burden, GSA must provide individuals with disabilities with information and data involved by an alternative means of access that allows the individual to use the information and data.

 

CASEY COLEMAN

Chief Information Officer

Office of the Chief Information Officer

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Chapter 1 – SECTION 508  
Chapter 2 – TECHNICAL STANDARDS  
Chapter 3 – DOCUMENT ACCESSIBILITY  
 
   
Appendix A. System Wide Shortcut Keys  
Appendix B. Agency Annual Reporting in the DOJ Survey  
Appendix C. Accessible Federal Forms  
Appendix D. Accessible Conference Preparation and Events  
Appendix E. Obtaining Information and Assistance on Section 508  
Appendix F. Definitions  
Appendix G. References  

 

 

Chapter 1 – SECTION 508

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Paragraph

Titles

Paragraph

Numbers

General

1

Purpose

2

Accessibility statement

3

General exception procedure

4

Persons with disabilities

5

Section 508 complaints

6

 

 

CHAPTER 1 – SECTION 508

 

1.  General.  Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 794d) has documented standards, established by an independent Federal agency known as the United States Access-Board to help agencies comply with the law. Section 508 requires that when Federal agencies develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology, Federal employees with disabilities must have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to the access and use by Federal employees who are not persons with disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed on the agency.  Section 508 also requires that persons with disabilities, who are members of the public seeking information or services from a Federal agency have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to the access and use for those persons without disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed on the agency.

 

2.  Purpose.  The purpose of this handbook is to provide methodologies and procedural guidance to GSA employees on the implementation of Section 508 technical standards (http://www.access-board.gov/508)  and accessibility.  This handbook addresses use of assistive technology (AT), such as screen reader software and more, in the Section 508 testing and remediation processes.  Persons with disabilities may include but are not limited to the blind or visually impaired, deaf/hearing impaired, and/or motor and cognitive impairments.

 

3. Accessibility statement.  GSA websites and web applications must include a link to a general accessibility statement.  The link to the statement may be listed at the bottom of the website or web application homepage. The statement page will also identify the date when the statement was last updated. The accessibility statement will be reviewed and updated annually by the project manager/contact for the website. The Section 508.gov accessibility policy may be used as a model for reference. The following paragraph serves as an example of an accessibility statement that may be used on GSA Intranet and Internet websites:

“GSA is committed to delivery of accessible electronic and information technology for our users with disabilities.  We strive to ensure our documents, features and content are accessible to persons using assistive technology.  If you experience difficulty accessing information or navigating our web site, please contact our Program Office at (enter phone number here) for assistance." 

4.  General exception procedure.  General exceptions are intended to allow the manager sufficient time to make their EIT accessible.  An exception will not alleviate the need to provide an alternate accessible format when requested. To request an exception, the program officer may obtain and complete the Section 508 exceptions form (form GSA 508: Request for Exception to the Section 508 Requirement 20 U.S.C. 794D), available from the Forms library (http://www.gsa.gov/forms).   The Section 508 Exceptions subcommittee will verify the factual accuracy of an exception request, which may  be predicated upon the following:

     a.  Back office.  The EIT is located in spaces frequented only by service personnel for maintenance, repair or occasional monitoring of equipment.

     b.  Alternative means.  If any of the exceptions under the General Exception Policy above apply or the accessibility requirements for other business related reasons cannot be met, then an alternative means for persons with disabilities to obtain the services and/or information will be provided. Alternate formats usable by people with disabilities may be used, including, but are not limited to, Braille, ASCII text, large print, recorded audio, and electronic formats that comply with this part. Alternate methods may be used to provide information, including product documentation, to people with disabilities. Alternate methods may include, but are not limited to, voice, fax, relay service, text telephone (TTY), Internet posting, captioning, text-to-speech synthesis, and audio description.

 

c.  Commercial non-availability.  After surveying the market, the requiring office may conclude that compliant EIT is not available when it cannot find a commercial item that both meets applicable Access Board standards and can be furnished in time to satisfy the agency’s delivery requirements.  If products are available that meet some, but not all, applicable standards, one cannot claim a product as a whole is non-available just because it does not meet all of the standards. The requiring office must comply with those technical standards that can be met with supplies or services that are available in the commercial marketplace, in time to meet the agency’s delivery requirements.  The requiring official must document in writing the unavailability and provide a copy of the documentation to the contracting officer for inclusion in the contract file.  The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 39.203(2) requires that the documentation must describe market research performed and which applicable standards cannot be met with products or services available from the marketplace. Applicable agency procedures must be followed. The FAR requires determinations by the requiring official, (not contracting officials) unless agencies provide otherwise in their procedures. The requiring official is an official in the program office or organization that is funding and acquiring the EIT.  

 

d.  Fundamental alteration.  If the alteration would be so fundamental that the agency would no longer be procuring EIT that meets its needs, an agency is not required to alter its acquisition requirements in order to comply with Section 508.  The requiring official must document in writing the unavailability and provide a copy of this documentation to the contracting officer for inclusion in the contract file.  Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 39.203(2) requires that the documentation must describe market research performed and which applicable standards cannot be met with products or services available from the marketplace.  Applicable agency procedures must be followed.  Pursuant to the FAR, the requiring activity official and not the contracting official makes these determinations unless the agency provides otherwise in its procedures. ”The requiring official is an official in the program office or organization that is funding and acquiring the EIT.  

 

e.  Incidental to a contract.  Incidental to a contract is defined as products a contractor develops, maintains, or uses which are not specified as part of contract with GSA.  EIT acquired by a contractor that is incidental to the contract is an exception.   Section 508 only applies to products and services being procured by Federal agencies.

 

f.  Undue burden.  Undue burden is defined as "a significant difficulty or expense," considering all agency resources available to the program or component for which the product is being procured. This definition is consistent with the use of "undue burden" and "undue hardship" in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other sections of the Rehabilitation Act.  Section 508 provides that if a Federal agency determines that meeting the applicable technical provisions would impose an undue burden, any documentation by the agency supporting the procurement may explain why procuring an item that meets all of the applicable Access Board technical provisions would impose an undue burden. Additionally, when the undue burden exception is invoked, the Federal agency may provide persons with disabilities with the information and data by an alternative means of access.

 

5.  Persons with disabilities.  The GSA established an Interagency Agreement with the Computer/Electronics Accommodations Program (CAP) (http://www.tricare.mil/CAP/)   at the Department of Defense.  CAP is funded to purchase assistive technology devices, equipment, software and more for employees with disabilities, at no cost to GSA.  For additional information on the CAP program and services, contact the Center for IT Accommodation at 202-501-3322 or the Section 508 Coordinator at 202-208-0799, or email us at CIO508Help@gsa.go

6.  Section 508 complaints.  The GSA Office of Civil Rights (OCR) investigates and processes program complaints concerning Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended.  You may contact GSA’s Office of Civil Rights at 1800 F Street, NW, Room 5123, Washington, D.C. 20405, or call 202-501-0767 or 1-800-267-7660 (TDD).”   Details about the nature of Section 508 complaints processing is outside the stated scope of this handbook.

Chapter 2 – TECHNICAL STANDARDS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Paragraph

Titles

Paragraph

Numbers

Technical Standards and Tips for Accessibility

1

    Software applications and operating systems

1a

    Web-based intranet and internet information systems

1b

               Figure 2-1.1   Examples of coding a graphic using the alt tag

No info

               Figure 2-1.2  Examples of coding image map regions

No info

               Figure 2-1.3  Code for frames with titled text

No info

               Figure 2-1.4 Example of creating the “D” link as a method to skip  repetitive link

No info

    Telecommunication products

1c

    Video and multimedia products

1d

    Self contained closed products

1e

    Desktop and portable computers

1f

    Functional performance criteria

1g

    Information, documentation and support

1h

 

 

CHAPTER 2 – TECHNICAL STANDARDS

1.  Technical standards.

     a.  Software applications and operating systems.

          (1)  At a minimum, every feature of an application must be available using the keyboard. For example, you cannot have a print function that can only be accessed with a mouse. The feature itself or the result of the feature must provide text feedback.

          (2)  A function is textually discernible if it offers text feedback to the user. For example, when a user activates a Delete function, the application may display a confirmation dialog box with text, "Are you sure you want to delete?" Text feedback is accessible to assistive technology.

          (3)  Follow these tips:   

  1. Install the software by using only the keyboard.
  2. Perform basic software functions using the keyboard (e.g., open and close a file, read the help file, and print). The functions may perform as expected, and this may be evident from text feedback.
  3. Consult the product's user manual for functionality. For every function, there must be a means to access and use that function with the keyboard alone.
  4. Apply to systems that include keyboards. Information transaction machines such as kiosks with limited input controls would fall under Self-Contained, Closed Products                                           (http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/standards.htm#Subpart b)
  5. Please review the Windows Shortcut Keys for commonly used key combinations.
  6. Text feedback is integral to compliance with several other standards.
  7. See (http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/standards.htm#Subpart_b).
  8.       When navigating through an application, a sighted user can also test for compliance by ensuring that each interface element displays focus changes.
  9. (4)  Applications must not disrupt or disable activated features of other products that are identified as accessibility features, where those features are developed and documented according to industry standards. Systems or applications must not disrupt or disable documented accessibility features of software products or operating systems.
  10. Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel. Double click on the Accessibility Options icon, and activate all of the accessibility features. The Sticky Keys, MouseKeys and other options may still work with the application running.
  11. Check the product's user manual for any documented accessibility features. Enable them if available. Ensure that they do not impact the operating system or other application's accessibility features.
  12. Use assistive technology to navigate and use the software.           
  13. Navigate through the software or operating system, paying attention to focus changes in menus, dialogs, forms, property boxes and other interface elements.
  14. The cursor may be visible and easy to find.

 

(5)  Sufficient information about a user interface element including the identity, operation and state of the element may be accessible to assistive technology.  When an image represents a program element, the information conveyed by the image must also be available in text.  All visually available (on screen) information in a product must be available to assistive technology. Images, graphs, icons and forms must have descriptive information conveyed in a text format such as a text label, ALT tag or "tool tip”.                      

  1. Inspect the application using a software utility to retrieve and display information about user interface elements. Each interface element may be identified and accurately described by the utility (e.g., a check box may report its function and current state).
  2. A quick way to determine whether an image program element is compliant is to place the mouse pointer over the image. If a tool tip appears that textually describes the meaning or function of that image, then the image is compliant. If a tool tip does not appear, then similar descriptive text may be associated with the image in a way that is available to assistive technology.
  3. To test Java-based applications, visit http://java.sun.com/products/jfc/accessibility/index.jsp     and download the free Java Accessibility Utilities (Access Bridge interface utilities) such as Ferret, Monkey, or Accessibility Monitor.
  4. An expert testing with specific assistive technology such as screen reading software in a specific environment cannot guarantee compliance, but it can be an effective indicator as to whether a product conforms to the Section 508 standards.
  5. Consult the manufacturer for a copy of their voluntary product accessibility template (http://www.section508.gov)   for the product.

 

(6)  When bitmap images are used to identify controls, status indicators, or other programmatic elements, the meaning assigned to those images may be consistent throughout an application's performance.   

  1. Check the bitmap images in the product, especially those that represent unique or critical tasks.
  2. Ensure that the image for each function is consistent throughout the application.

 

(7)  Textual information must be provided through operating system functions for displaying text. The minimum information that must be made available is text content, text input caret location, and text attributes. Text information from a product must be available to assistive technology. This is accomplished by interfacing with operating system functions for displaying text (e.g., application program interface that accept text content and attributes).     

  1. Change the font attributes in the operating system. In Windows, this can be done by clicking Start > Settings > Control Panel > Display > Appearance. The fonts within the application may change accordingly.
  2. Textual information may be selectable using the cursor.

 

(8)  Applications must not override user-selected contrast and color selections and other individual display attributes.  A product must be able to conform to the user's operating system display settings.  A product cannot use its own color and contrast settings, unless it complies with each interface element that displays focus change.

  1. Change the operating system display settings. (In Windows this is accomplished by clicking Start > Settings > Control Panel > Display > Appearance.)
  2. In all of the product's screens, the product's colors and other display attributes must be able to conform to the operating system's display settings.
  3. Application functions cannot automatically disable or change system display settings.
  4. The magnification/zoom settings cannot be adversely affected when evaluating the product.

       Satisfying this requirement will help support interoperability with AT such as screen magnifiers and alternative user interfaces.

 

(9)  If animation is used in a product, the user must be able to select at least one non-animated mode to display the animation's information (e.g., audio or text description).    

  1. Observation of the product interface;
  2. Review of the product documentation (e.g., user manuals and online help);
  3. The software must provide each animation's content using an alternate means. For example, for each informative animation sequence, a text or audio equivalent may be provided; and
  4. The ability to turn off decorative (non-informational) animations is a good product feature.

 

(10)  Color coding must not be used as the only means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.

 

  (a)  Color may never be the only means to identify functions, visual elements or information.

  1.  For all functions that require color-coding, there must be an alternative or different reference and that reference must be unique. That is, the information or action must be conveyed without color.

       (b)  Two ways to evaluate an application's conformance to this standard are:

  1. If a black and white setting is available, turn it on and verify that all information is still conveyed.
  2. Print the information without color on a black and white printer or adjust the display to monochrome, and verify that all information is still conveyed.

 

(11)  When a product permits a user to adjust color and contrast settings, a variety of color selections capable of producing a range of contrast levels must be provided, so users can adjust the brightness and contrast between foreground and background colors on a web page.  If the product does not feature adjustable color or contrast settings, then the standard does not apply.                  

  1. In Windows, go to Start > Settings > Control Panel > Accessibility Options and change the color and contrast settings.
  2. Make any color adjustments to foreground, background, and other elements.
  3. A range of colors must be provided. For example, Microsoft allows at least 30 variations. At a minimum, the product may include the selection of the eight primary colors for both the foreground and background.
  4. While observing contrast levels, adjust the display to full-color and monochrome settings.
  5. There may be a combination that will provide a soft background, low contrast color scheme as well as combinations that provide a high contrast color scheme.
  6. Avoid reds and greens together. White on black, black on white, and yellow on black are examples of high contrast settings.
  7. Lighthouse International provides guidelines for effective color contrast on their web site at http://www.lighthouse.org/color_contrast.htm.
  8. Color combinations may be observed on a video display, not in printed material.   

             (12)  Software must not use flashing or blinking text, objects, or other elements having a flash or blink frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz, to avoid seizures in epileptics which may be triggered by material blinking or flashing within the specified range.  No assistive technology is required to test for compliance. Design software products so that blinking on the screen is nonexistent, or very slow (e.g., one blink per second), or very fast (at least fifty-five blinks per second).        

 

Visually review software applications to locate flashing or blinking elements.

  1. Special tools are required to accurately measure the screen blink rate. Check the user manual for the flash/blink rate. If it is not listed, call the manufacturer for information.
  2. Because 2 Hz is relatively slow, it is possible to use visual observation to determine whether the blink rate is greater than 2 Hz. Ideally, the blink rate may not be greater than 1 Hz, i.e., one blink per  second.  If no timing device is available, you may approximate a one-second interval by speaking the words "one thousand one".
  3. If there are multiple items that are flashing simultaneously in the same visual space, the cumulative effect may be considered.
  4. Processor speeds and graphic cards can affect blink rate, so it is best to measure blink rate on all the relevant products.
  5. (13)  When electronic forms are used, the form must allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.  This includes the fields in the form, all fillable information, and functions used to submit the form.
  6. The focus may move in a logical sequence to all fields and information (e.g., starting with a description of the first name field, then to first name, description of the last name field, last name).
  7. The user may be able to fill in data in the proper fields in the required format (e.g., name, state, telephone numbers).
  8. The user may be able to complete the form and submit it using only the keyboard.

 

b.    Web based intranet and internet information and applications.

 

 (1)  Ensure your website conforms to the Section 508 technical standards located at the Access-Board website  (http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/guide/1194.22.htm ).     Accessibility coupled with Section 508 technical standards must be addressed in the early stages of a project’s lifecycle.  Web developers may refer to web accessibility materials from the Web Accessibility Initiative at  http://www.w3.org/wai/  Web developers may take the Web Accessibility training available in the Section 508 Universe at     http://www.section508.gov/ ,    to count toward the Section 508 training requirement referred to in the policy “GSA Section 508: Managing Electronic and Information Technology for Persons with Disabilities (CIO 2105.1A).” 

 

  (2)  The Access Board  http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/guide/1194.22.htm)

provides information on the Section 508 technical standards as they apply to intranet and internet information systems.

 

   (3)  A text equivalent for every non-text element must be provided (e.g., via "alt, "longdesc", or in element content). Descriptions of non-textual elements must be provided for those who cannot see them.

 

Figure 2-1.1.  Examples of coding a graphic using the alt tag

 

 

 

<IMG SRC=”butterflies.gif” ALT=”a series of colored butterflies”>

<A href=”default.htm”><IMG src=”butterflies.gif” ALT=”a series of colored butterflies”></a>

  1. Compliance with this standard can generally be verified by examination of the HTML code to ensure that all images, image map hot spots, and other non-text elements contain text descriptions. In complex situations, such as where Java Script or other scripting languages are involved, the site can be tested with a screen reader to ensure that the descriptive information is properly exposed to the user.
  2. One of the big misconceptions surrounding Section 508 and the web involves the use of the Alt attribute to provide descriptions for images and other non-textual elements. Many believe, due to the phrasing of the standard, that every image must have a verbal equivalent, which must be spoken out loud. This is far from true, and web developers may realize that the audible labeling of graphics used for formatting purposes, such as spacers with audio descriptions, actually adds to the inaccessibility of a site by creating audio litter. For those images which do not convey content or navigation information, alt= " " is recommended for use as an appropriate solution. The screen reader skips over the unimportant graphic and remains silent, keeping its verbal output to the blind user clean and informative.

 

    (4)  Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation must be synchronized with the presentation.

  1. Blind persons may need audio descriptions synchronized to visual multimedia, which they cannot see, or the hearing-impaired who may need text captioning synchronized to audio multimedia material, which they cannot hear.
  2. Assistive technology is not required to test.
  3. (5) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color.”
  4.       Those who are color-blind cannot discern a given action depicted by color alone.
  5.       No assistive technology is required to test.
  6. (6) Documents must be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.
  7.       Applies to people with all disabilities.
  8.       No assistive technology is required to test.
  9. (7) Redundant text links must be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.
  10. Persons who are blind need these, since screen readers cannot interpret the hot spots on a server-side image map without redundant links.
  11. Can be verified through examination of the code, although the proper reading of these redundant links can be verified with a screen reader.
  •  
  • Figure 2-1.2. Examples of coding image map regions

 

<A HREF = “img/imgmapsenses.map”>

<IMG ISMAP SRC=”imgmapsenses.gif” ALT=”Please use the following links instead of the imagemap.”</A><BR>

[<A HREF=”hearing.htm”>Sense of Hearing Section</A>

<A HREF=”taste.htm”>Sense of Taste Section</A>

 

       (8) Client-side image maps must be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.

  1. Impacts those who are blind. This standard states a preference for the use of client-side image maps where possible, since the hot spots on client-side image maps can be labeled with the alt attribute and thus be read by the blind user.
  2. Can be verified through examination of the underlying code. When deemed necessary, the proper reading of the labels for the hot spots on these image maps can bbe verified with a screen reader.
  3. (9) Row and column headers must be identified for data tables.
  4. (10) Markup must be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers.”
  5. The Access Board has prepared state-of-the-art technical guidance on accessible table construction (http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/guide/1194.22.htm#(g)).
  6. Use the “scope” attribute to associate row and column headers with their corresponding cells in a rectangular table, and the header/id tags in more complex multi-level tables which contain diagonal associations. Jaws and other screen readers recognize the scope and the header/id attributes.
  7. (11) Frames must be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.”
  8.      Impacts those who are blind.  Standard I compliance can, as with many others, be verified by an examination of the HTML code, but can also be tested with a screen reader.
  9.                                          Figure 2-1.3. Code for frames with titled text
  10.               <FRAME src=”main.htm” longdesc=”maindesc.htm” title=”Main content frame.”>
  11. (12) Pages must be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker.
  12. (13) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, must be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page may be updated whenever the primary page changes.
  13. Primarily impacts those who are blind.  Verification of the not accessible page may be tested with a screen reader. The accessibility of the alternate text-only page can be tested by examination of the code or with a screen reader.
  14. (14) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script must be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology.
  15. Designed to assist the blind surfer by ensuring that text produced via scripting is available to the assistive technology.  Compliance for Standard L may be tested with a screen reader, since it may not be possible by code examination alone to verify the availability of functional text to this technology. Here too, as with tables and frame titling, the Access Board is issuing technical assistance guidance on how to construct scripts, which will yield functional text for capturing by the screen reader.
  16. (15) When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with (a) through (l).
  17. When a plug-in is necessary to present content to the user which falls outside the standard HTML interface, the plug-in must comply with the standards contained in another Section of the Section 508 requirements.
  18.  
  19. (16) When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form must allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.”
  20. Designed to assist the blind because it impacts their ability for accurately filling out forms on the web.
  21. (17) A method must be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.
  22. Allows repetitive information at the top of each page to be skipped so that those using screen readers don't have to listen to the same repetitive links each time a page is loaded.
  23. Assists those with mobility impairments who want to skip directly to page content and find it easier to click on a "skip navigation" button.
  24. Requires no assistive technology for compliance testing, although screen readers may be used to test if transparent gifs or gifs with the same background color are used making them invisible except to the screen reader. However, some discourage the use of invisible graphics as skip links as it negatively impacts the ability of a person with mobility impairment to use these links.
  25.                       Figure 2-1.4. Example of creating the “D” link as a method to skip repetitive link
  26.        <a href=”AlternateContent.htm” alt=”Link to Alternate Content”><SPAN    id=hidden>d</SPAN></a>
  27. (18) When a timed response is required, the user must be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.   
  28. Designed to allow persons with mobility impairments who may be slower than average in filling out a timed form to be alerted that time is running out and extend the time if necessary. It applies to persons with mobility impairments which affect their ability to input data at the normal rate of speed.  No assistive technology is required for compliance testing for Standard P.
  29. (19)   Note to §1194.22:
  30.    (a)   The Board interprets paragraphs (a) through (k) of this section as consistent with the following priority 1 Checkpoints of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 (WCAG 1.0) (May 5, 1999) published by the Web Accessibility Initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium:

Section 1194.22 Paragraph

WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint

(a)

  1. 1

(b)

  • 4

(c)

  • 1

(d)

  • 1

(e)

  • 2

(f)

  • 1

(g)

  • 1

(h)

  • 2

(i)

  • 1

(j)

  • 1

(k)

  • 4

 

 

                   (b)    Paragraphs (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p) of this section are different from WCAG 1.0. Web pages that conform to WCAG 1.0, level A (i.e., all priority 1 checkpoints) must also meet paragraphs (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p) of this section to comply with this section. WCAG 1.0 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/WAI-WEBCONTENT-19990505.

 

c.  Telecommunication products.

 

    (1)   Telecommunication products are amongst those used by people who are deaf, hard of hearing, visually impaired, or speech impaired to communicate over networks designed to carry voice.  Whenever a device transmits and receives voice over a telecommunications network, it must then be able to support the hookup and successful interoperation of TTY-AT. This category includes telecommunications devices such as digital, analog, wire, wireless, and Internet-based products and devices such as telephone answering machines.

     (2)   Due to the technical nature of the standards in this category, many of the evaluation statements and tests for compliance require specialized tools and expertise in telecommunication products. Contact the manufacturer and request a copy of their product’s Voluntary Product Accessibility Template.

  1.  Coupling refers to the connection between telecommunications products such as telephones and hearing technologies like hearing aids.
  2.  Acoustic coupling is often ineffective as it is susceptible to noise, poor coupling of the phone earpiece, and acoustic feedback.
  3.  The Hearing Aid-•Compatibility (HAC) Act allows inductive coupling with with  hearing aids rather than relying on an acoustic coupling method. However, with the advent of digital wireless telecommunications, new challenges have arisen for the hearing aid user. This problem has not yet been completely resolved.
  4.  Many of these laws are equivalents to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Hearing Aid Compatibility laws, so therefore many products will already be at least partially compliant
  5.  Approach the requirements in this Section from the end user's perspective.
  6. Manual testing is the preferred method since it best replicates the impact and effectiveness of AT on the end users.
  7. Whenever a technical issue is difficult to understand or evaluate, contact the product manufacturer.

 

(3) Telecommunications products or systems which provide a function allowing voice communication and which do not themselves provide a TTY functionality must provide a standard non-acoustic connection point for TTYs.  Microphones may be capable of being turned on and off to allow the user to intermix speech with TTY use.

  1. Telecommunication products (e.g., telephones) or systems that provide voice communication must also have the capability to provide standard non-acoustic connection points for TTY.   
  2. Microphones must be capable of being turned on and off to allow user to intermix speech with TTY use.                
  3. If the product does not provide TTY functionality built-in, the product may have a standard non-acoustic connection point (e.g., RJ-11 or TSB-121).
  4. If the product includes a microphone, it must have an off/on and mute switch function.
  5. 300 baud ASCII includes  a carrier tone signal that causes problems in supporting VCO. Therefore, TTYs must also support 45.5 baud Baudot, which works fine with VCO.
  6. For traditional phones (e.g., desk or public phones), an analog, PSTN-compatible RJ-11 port or a 2.5 mm jack will allow connection of a TTY.
  7. For ISDN systems, an ISDN Terminal Adapter (RJ-11, analog, PSTN-compatible) will provide the TTY connection.
  8. For wireless analog or digital systems, a 2.5 mm headset jack on the handset will allow the connection of a TTY.
  9. For VoIP, there is no specific connector at this time. However, any one of the above connectors may be appropriate, depending on the implementation of this technology. Research is under way to determine effectiveness of various VoIP systems in carrying TTY and to determine solutions to problems identified.

 

(4) Telecommunications products that include voice communication functionality may support all commonly used cross-manufacturer non-proprietary standard TTY signal protocols.

  1. Voice telecommunication products must support commonly used protocols such as 45.5 baud Baudot and 300 baud ASCII.               
  2. The quick, non-technical method to determine compliance is to read the user manual or check with the manufacturer.
  3. A more comprehensive method for determining compliance is to identify the standard TTY signal protocols (e.g., 300 baud ASCII) and use of the standard methods and tools that exist for TTY signal protocol testing for digital wireless.
  4. Wireless carriers must inform the FCC when their networks are TTY compatible. The largest carriers have said that they are now in compliance.  They must also support TTY compatible handsets. Federal agencies need to assure that handsets they purchase are TTY compatible, but may not have to do independent testing of carrier networks.
  • Satisfying this requirement will support interoperability with •TTY-assistive technology.
  1. In general, the objective is that land-line, wireless, and VoIP phone systems will be able to pass TTY signals/protocol without unacceptable character loss or error.

 

(5) Voice mail, auto-attendant, and interactive voice response telecommunications systems must be usable by TTY users with their TTYs.

  1. Automated telecommunication services (e.g. voice mailboxes) must support TTY interaction.
  2. TTY user must be able to leave a message, navigate an automated menu, or otherwise interact with the telecommunication product.

 

(6) Voice mail, messaging, auto-attendant, and interactive voice response telecommunications systems that require a response from a user within a time interval, must give an alert when the time interval is about to run out, and may provide sufficient time for the user to indicate more time is required."

  1. The user must be alerted when any time-dependent function is about to timeout. The user must be given enough time to extend the response time.
  2. The user must be warned before the response time has elapsed.
  3. The product must provide sufficient time for the user to indicate that more time is required.
  4. If the response time is not limited, this standard is not applicable.
  5. Although not required, it is good programming practice to use non-destructive timeouts.
  6. Assume that informed users can reasonably and consistently judge the amount of time they need and indicate that more time is needed.

 

(7) Where provided, caller identification and similar telecommunications functions may also be available for users of TTYs, and for users who cannot see displays.

  1. Caller identification and similar functions of a telecommunication device must be accessible to TTY users and those who cannot see the device's display.
  2. Teletypewriter (TTY)
  3. If the product provides visual Caller ID, it may either:
  4. -  Provide for voice output, or
  5. -  Have a connection method for adding an external Caller ID product with voice output.  
  6. Check for exposure of the Caller ID info to a computer workstation.  There may be software or protocols that will make Caller ID and other information available in at least one non-visual mode.
  7.  Some telecommunications functions expect the user to rely on either audible or visual information.  For example, a feature may provide information to the user via a special dial tone or ring pattern.  To many TTY users, this audible information is not available, so they cannot properly use the feature.  Alternatively, a feature may provide information to the user via a flashing light or an icon in a display. This visual information is not available to users who cannot see the display, so they cannot properly use the feature.  The key to making such features accessible is redundancy in the method of information delivery.  This means supplementing the audible information with visual or tactile information, and supplementing visual information with audible or tactile information.  Providing such redundancy allows most users to access more product features.
  8. Satisfying this requirement will support interoperability with TTY-AT.  Some ways in which the necessary interoperability with Caller ID could be achieved include:
  9. -  The TTY user could use an external display that provides Caller ID.
  10. -  The TTY user could use a telephone that has Caller ID functions built in.
  11. -  An ISDN phone with RJ-11 interface could pass through the Caller ID
  12. functions for a TTY connected to it.
  13. With regard to access by "users who cannot see displays," the following Caller ID implementations may provide limited solutions for blind users:
  14. -  Integrated or external Caller ID devices that articulate the number.
  15. -  Where the phone is only used in a work area that includes a speech
  16. output or Braille-based technology, telephony application program interface that is
  17. compatible with that access technology could provide access to the function.

 

(8) For transmitted voice signals, telecommunications products must provide a gain adjustable up to a minimum of 20 dB.  For incremental volume control, at least one intermediate step of 12 dB of gain may be provided.

  1. Telecommunications products that transmit voice communications must have the ability to amplify the volume and have an intermediate setting.                                       
  2. The product must have a volume control.
  3. Check the user manual to determine the maximum volume in decibels and whether it is equal to or greater than 20.
  4. Some engineers are concerned that exceeding 18 dB will be problematic for FCC acceptance.  The FCC maximum gain is 18 dB, but this may be exceeded if an automatic volume reset is provided.  Since standard (g) below requires automatic volume reset, the 20 dB gain required by this provision does not conflict with the FCC requirements.
  5. Some engineers believe there may be technical problems with meeting other requirements at levels above 18 dB.  This needs further research. In the United States, none of the commonly accepted standards for digital voice communication between telephones and associated back-office equipment (such as PBXs) have 20 dB of amplification available, and providing such gain would result in unusable output.  Under typical conditions, the maximum gain in the output of back-office systems, without introducing unacceptable levels of distortion, is about 12 dB.
  6. Some systems and products cannot provide 20 dB of true gain without exceeding the 125 dB safety criteria.
  7. Additional technical issues may exist with other requirements for VoIP.
  8. Satisfying this requirement does not involve interoperability with AT.
  9. (9) If the telecommunications product allows a user to adjust the receive volume, a function must be provided to automatically reset the volume to the default level after every use.
  10. On telecommunication products that have adjustable volume, there must be an automatic volume reset function that sets the volume back to the default level.
  11. Assume that this standard refers to products that have a handset, headset, earphone, or other transducer near the ear.  Assume that the default volume level is safe, clear, and audible for fully able users.
  12. The product must have a feature to automatically revert back to the default output level after every use.  This does not mean it must reset every time, but that it is possible to enable the product to reset after each use.
  13. Note that personal communications devices such as cell phones do not typically default at the current time.  Users of personal communication devices might desire a customized setting that does not always default.  Note that most phones and phone systems do not currently default to a "0 gain" state.
  14. Satisfying this requirement does not involve interoperability with AT.

 

(10) Where a telecommunications product delivers output by an audio transducer which is normally held up to the ear, a means for effective magnetic wireless coupling to hearing technologies must be provided.

  1. When using a telecommunication product such as a telephone, there must be a means to effectively use magnetic wireless coupling devices such as hearing aids.
  2. Assume that effective magnetic wireless coupling to hearing aids with a telecoil and cochlear implants is applicable to this requirement.
  • Magnetic wireless coupling (e.g. Inductive coupling)
  1. It is difficult to determine compliance with this standard without the use of special testing equipment and expertise in this field.  However, the Hearing Aid Compatibility Act (HAC Act) requires all new land-line telephones produced or imported after 1989 to be compatible with hearing aids, so current land-line phones (including cordless) meet this provision.

(11) Interference to hearing technologies (including hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive listening devices) must be reduced to the lowest possible level that allows a user of hearing technologies to utilize the telecommunications product.

    (12) Products that transmit or conduct information or communication must pass through cross-manufacturer, non-proprietary, industry-standard codes, translation protocols, formats or other information necessary to provide the information or communication in a usable format.  Technologies which use encoding, signal compression, format transformation, or similar techniques must not remove information needed for access or may restore it upon delivery.

  1. Any telecommunication product must have the ability to process information in a usable format. Products may not remove information required for access.
  2. This requirement applies to the transmission of TTY signals over voice-based telecommunications systems, including VoIP.  The requirement was written broadly to ensure that it would apply to evolving technologies.                             

  

(13) Products which have mechanically operated controls or keys must comply with:

            (a) Controls and keys must be tactilely discernible without having to be activated.

  1. The controls and keys on a telecommunication product must be designed and manufactured so that a user may locate and identify them by means of touch alone, without activating them.
  2. Keyboards may have navigational bumps on the keys (e.g., the F and J keys on a standard keyboard, or the 5 key on a numeric pad).
  3. Testers must be able to locate controls or keys with their eyes shut and without activating the functions of the keys.
  4. The law does not require that similar keys be grouped together, although this may be important for product usability.  Examples include arrow keys, numeric keys, and function keys.
  • Satisfying this requirement does not involve interoperability with AT.
  1. Mechanically operated controls must be usable with one hand, without particular motions (twisting of the wrist, tight grasping, pinching) or considerable exertion (more than five pounds of force).
  2. Attempt to operate the product with one hand. Pay particular attention to controls such as latches, which must also be compliant.
  3. Examine the user manual for function keys (e.g., programmable phone buttons) and attempt to use all documented features with one hand.
  4. No control or key may require tight grasping, pinching, twisting of the wrist (e.g., contrast controls), or more than five pounds of pressure.   
  5. It is difficult to measure the forces required by non push-button controls such as pull controls, rotary controls, slide controls, thumb wheels, and toggles.  Check the user manual or contact the manufacturer for specific information.
  6. Functional Performance Criteria prohibits simultaneous actions and applies to all products.  When reviewing items for this requirement, ensure that no simultaneous actions are required.

 

(14) Products which have mechanically operated controls or keys, must comply with the following: If key repeat is supported, the delay before repeat may be adjustable to at least 2 seconds. Key repeat rate must be adjustable to 2 seconds per character.

  1. Telecommunications products with key repeat features must allow a 2 second delay before repeating a key being held down.  Products with key repeat features must also allow up to 2 seconds between each repetition of a key being held down.
  2. Some systems do not support key repeat.  However, on products where key repeat is provided, this provision requires the repeat to be adjustable.
  3. Attempt to locate key repeat features by reading the user manual or consulting the manufacturer.
  4. If the telecommunication product has key repeat functions, it must allow the user to control the key repeat rate.
  5. If a key repeat feature cannot be found, hold down a key for 10 seconds.  If you observe key repeat behavior: The delay between an initial key press and the automatic repeat must be adjustable to at least 2 seconds.  The key repeat rate must be adjustable to 2 seconds.
  6. Some systems have a key repeat acceleration feature. For such systems, the measurement may be taken when the key repeat rate stabilizes.  If the acceleration feature can be turned off, measurements may be done with this acceleration feature disabled.
  7. Satisfying this requirement does not involve interoperability with assistive technology.

(15) Products which have mechanically operated controls or keys, must comply with the following: The status of all locking or toggle controls or keys must be visually discernible, and discernible either through touch or sound.  All locking or toggle controls or keys must be discernible visually, and through touch or sound.  Assume that more than one person would reliably determine:

  1.  The type and severity of low vision to which a control or key must be discernible (e.g., a good heuristic is to procure for people with 20/70 vision; meaning what most people see at 70 feet, they would see at 20 feet away).
  2. The level of sound that is adequate to discern the status of locking or toggle controls (see requirements (f), (g) and (h)).
  3. The amount of force required for the status of a control or key to be tactilely discernible without activating a key (e.g., lightly running your fingers over the F and J keys of a standard keyboard to locate the navigational bumps without actually typing the F or J key).
  4. Have either an audible or tactile indicator for status.
  5. “Discernible through sound" may be difficult to assess, due to ambient noise.

Satisfying this requirement does not involve interoperability with AT.

 

  1.   Video and multimedia.

(1) The technical specifications define the requirements for accessible video and multimedia presentations. The Video and Multimedia products standards apply to A/V equipment such as digital and analog TVs, VCRs, HDTV set-top boxes, DVD equipment, and in certain circumstances, PCs equipped with TV tuners, receiver cards, or displays used in presentations.  The standards also apply to streaming media such as broadcast and cable signals, as well as online presentations.

 

(2) All analog television displays 13 inches and larger, and computer equipment that includes analog television receiver or display circuitry, must be equipped with caption decoder circuitry which appropriately receives, decodes, and displays closed captions from broadcast, cable, videotape, and DVD signals.  Widescreen digital television (DTV) displays measuring at least 7.8 inches vertically, DTV sets with conventional displays measuring at least 13 inches vertically, and stand-alone DTV tuners, whether or not they are marketed with display screens, and computer equipment that includes DTV receiver or display circuitry, may be equipped with caption decoder circuitry which appropriately receives, decodes, and displays closed captions from broadcast, cable, videotape, and DVD signals.

 

(3) Any analog TV or DTV display or receiver must correctly receive and display closed captions that are transmitted by broadcast television, cable, videotape (e.g., VHS), or DVDs.

 

The product may accurately receive captions (turn on captions and play media known to have captions; verify the captions are available).

  1. Open or closed caption decoding capabilities may be included in the product.
  2. The product may display captions correctly.
  3. This section of the law only applies to analog products with displays whose diagonal screen size is equal to or larger than 13 inches.  For digital video and multimedia products the law applies to screen sizes that are 7.8 inches vertically for widescreen displays, or 13 inches for conventional displays.

(4) Television tuners, including tuner cards for use in computers, must be equipped with secondary audio program playback circuitry.

  1. Turn on secondary audio features and tune into a TV channel with known SAP content. Verify that the SAP content is available.
  2. The intent of this law is to enhance multimedia experiences for those who are visually impaired. Often secondary audio includes an audio description of the visual content of a presentation that is synchronized with the existing soundtrack.
  3. Although this portion of the law does not include TVs or displays without tuner circuitry, Functional Performance Criteria requires agencies to provide "at least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user vision".  Therefore it is a good practice to purchase displays with SAP receiving capabilities.
  4. It is a good practice to ensure that TVs and displays offer SAP capabilities if they support an agency's mission.  Attaching stand-alone SAP circuitry can do this.
  5. The Media Access Group at WGBH publishes a series of consumer guides to issues related to media access.  MAG Guide Volume 4 provides information on activating audio descriptions through the SAP channel on stereo TVs and VCRs.

  

(5) Training and informational video and multimedia productions which support the agency's mission, regardless of format, that contain speech or other audio information necessary for the comprehension of the content mustbe open or closed captioned.  Video and multimedia presentations may:

  1. Support the agency's mission.
  2. Be used for training or informational purposes.
  3. Be viewed as a production (e.g., it is not simply raw video footage).
  4. Include audio that is essential for understanding the presentation.
  5. Be open or closed captioned when containing speech or other audio information necessary for the comprehension of the content.
  6. Activate captions and ensure that they provide equivalent alternative text.
  7. Ensure textual descriptions are provided in the captions so critical auditory information (e.g., an audience clapping, music playing) is conveyed to all users.
  8. Include software presentations such as PowerPoint.
  9. The Media Access Group (http://main.wgbh.org/wgbh/pages/mag/services/description) at WGBH publishes a series of consumer guides to issues related to media access.  MAG Guide Volume 3 offers guidance to the somewhat complex mandates governing the provision and availability of closed captions and audio descriptions on television.

(6) Training and informational video and multimedia productions which support the agency's mission, regardless of format, that contain visual information necessary for the comprehension of the content must be audio described.  A video or multimedia presentation must include audio descriptions if it satisfies these four conditions:

 

It is for training or information purposes.

It is a production (e.g., it is not simply raw video footage).

It includes images that are essential for understanding the presentation.

It allows the user to turn on sound features and ensures equivalent alternative audio descriptions of visual content exists.

 

Multimedia productions include software presentations such as PowerPoint. In addition to this standard, Functional Performance Criteria requires that, "at least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user vision may be provided."

(7)  Display or presentation of alternate text presentation or audio descriptions must be user-selectable unless permanent.  A user of a video or multimedia production may be able to select whether captions and/or audio descriptions are presented, unless they are a permanent part of the production (e.g., open captions).  Also ensure the final production:

 

Includes closed captions and allows closed captions to be turned on and off.

Includes audio descriptions, or if not a permanent part of the production, ensure that they can be turned on and off.

 

The means of selecting captions or audio descriptions may be accessible, although there is no requirement for interoperability with AT or for text-based selection processes. Selections may be presented using both visual and audible cues. E.g., many DVD menus are primarily visual, so users with vision impairments may have difficulty activating audio descriptions. DVD menus may be designed with visual and audible cues.

e.  Self-contained closed products.

     (1) By definition, a self-contained, closed product is a device unto itself. The Section 508 technical standards for this category apply to products that generally have embedded software and are commonly designed in such a fashion that a user cannot easily attach or install assistive technology. Examples of such products include copiers, printers, fax machines, calculators, and information kiosks.  For more information, refer to the standard at http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content& ID=12#Self.

     (2) Self contained products may be usable by people with disabilities without requiring an end-user to attach assistive technology to the product. Personal headsets for private listening are not assistive technology.

     (3) When a timed response is required, the user may be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.

     (4) Where a product utilizes touch screens or contact-sensitive controls, an input method may be provided that complies with §1194.23 (k) (1) through (4).

     (5) When biometric forms of user identification or control are used, an alternative form of identification or activation, which does not require the user to possess particular biological characteristics, may also be provided.

     (6) When products provide auditory output, the audio signal may be provided at a standard signal level through an industry standard connector that will allow for private listening. The product must provide the ability to interrupt, pause, and restart the audio at anytime.

     (7) When products deliver voice output in a public area, incremental volume control may be provided with output amplification up to a level of at least 65 dB. Where the ambient noise level of the environment is above 45 dB, a volume gain of at least 20 dB above the ambient level may be user selectable. A function may be provided to automatically reset the volume to the default level after every use.

     (8) Color coding may not be used as the only means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.

     (9) When a product permits a user to adjust color and contrast settings, a range of color selections capable of producing a variety of contrast levels may be provided.

     (10) Products may be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.

     (11) Products which are freestanding, non-portable, and intended to be used in one location and which have operable controls may comply with the operable controls as identified in the standard.  Specific guidance and illustration figures are available on Section 508.gov at http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12#Self.

f.  Desktop and portable computers.

      (1) All mechanically operated controls and keys may comply with §1194.23 (k) (1) through (4).

      (2) If a product utilizes touch screens or touch-operated controls, an input method will be provided that complies with §1194.23 (k) (1) through (4).

      (3) When biometric forms of user identification or control are used, an alternative form of identification or activation, which does not require the user to possess particular biological characteristics, will also be provided.

      (4) Where provided, at least one of each type of expansion slots, ports and connectors will comply with publicly available industry standards.

g. Functional performance criteria.

 

   (1) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user vision may be provided, or support for assistive technology used by people who are blind or visually impaired may be provided.

 

   (2) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require visual acuity greater than 20/70 may be provided in audio and enlarged print output working together or independently, or support for assistive technology used by people who are visually impaired may be provided.

 

   (3) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user hearing may be provided, or support for assistive technology used by people who are deaf or hard of hearing may be provided.

 

   (4) Where audio information is important for the use of a product, at least one mode of operation and information retrieval may be provided in an enhanced auditory fashion, or support for assistive hearing devices may be provided.

 

   (5) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user speech may be provided, or support for assistive technology used by people with disabilities may be provided.

 

   (6) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require fine motor control or simultaneous actions and that is operable with limited reach and strength may be provided.

 

h.  Information, documentation, and support.

 

   (1) Product support documentation provided to end-users may be made available in alternate formats upon request, at no additional charge.

 

   (2) End-users may have access to a description of the accessibility and compatibility features of products in alternate formats or alternate methods upon request, at no additional charge.

 

   (3) Support services for products may accommodate the communication needs of end-users with disabilities.

 

                                                                                                 Chapter 3 – DOCUMENT ACCESSIBILITY

 

                                                                                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

Paragraph

Titles

Paragraph Numbers

Accessible Word

1

Accessible PowerPoint

2

Accessible Excel

3

Accessible PDFs

4

Figure 3-4.1. Path for accessing the Acrobat OCR tool  
Figure 3-4.2. Recognize Text dialogue box  
Figure 3-4.3 Recognize Text-Settings dialogue box           
Figure 3-4.4. Message that appears if you try to render a file that is already a Text PDF  
Figure 3-4.5. An example of a PDF page with incorrect reading order  
Figure 3-4.6. Order Panel showing the reading order of the document  
Figure 3-4.7. Bookmarks Panel  
Figure 3-4.8. Document Properties dialogue box showing the available language options on the Advanced tab.  
Figure 3-4.9  Description tab of the Document Properties dialog box  
Figure 3-4-10. Path for running a full check with the Accessibility Checker  
Figure 3-4.11. Sample message generated by the Accessibility Checker  

 

CHAPTER 3 – DOCUMENT ACCESSIBILITY

  Accessible word.

  •  

        a.  Document layout and formatting.

    1. Include document properties by selecting File>Properties.  In the Summary tab, add the Title of your document, Subject, Author and any keywords to help identify your document.  Your keywords become the meta-tags when your document is posted online. In the Custom tab, add the name, type, and value attributes to your document, such as the language.  For example, under the Custom tab, select language from the drop down list and type in the value as “English”. Select ok to apply the properties.
    2. Make sure the Word document is well structured.  This can be done by formatting the document using heading Style elements in a hierarchical manner.
    3. When using header styles, make sure that the headers follow the proper progression.  Use the Title style for your document title, then begin with Header 1, Header 2, Header 3 and so forth.  Headers can be added up 9 levels (header 9), however document accessibility suggests not using more than 4 Header levels.   
    4. Make sure to keep white space between columns of text to avoid the appearance of run on text.  This assists people with low vision, and blind users using screen readers, as well as people with sensory or cognitive disabilities.
    5. Make font sizes 10 point or larger. Know your audience and use good judgment to determine the ideal font size to use.
    6. Create text using San Serif fonts such as Arial, Helvetica, Trebuchet, Gill Sans, Verdana, Tahoma and Helvetica.   
    7. Use the Insert>Page Numbers command to add page numbers, as opposed to typing page numbers manually.
    8. Create headers and footers using the View>Header and Footer command.
    9. Format documents with high contrast in mind.  Black text on a white background provides the highest contrast.
    10. Do not use color to convey information.  For example, “select the blue ball” would not be an appropriate way to convey information since that information would not be accessible to the visually impaired user.
    11. Create bullet or numbered styles as ordered or unordered lists, using the Formats>Bullet and Numbering command. Avoid manual formatting techniques such as hyphens.
    12. Turn off Track Changes and accept document as final before publication.
    13. Turn off any comments and formatting marks.
    14. The document must be reviewed in Print Preview for a final visual check before finalizing.
    15. Ensure URL’s contain the correct hyperlink and display the fully qualified URL (i.e. General Services Administration at http://www.gsa.gov)
    16. Use the “d” or descriptive link for very long descriptions that would be too long to be used in an “alt-tag” or “long desc.”   D-links are nothing more than the letter “d” used as an anchor tag.  Using it in this manner allows the user of assistive technology to have at their disposal, a method to obtain alternate means to access content.  As an example of describing the extensive details of a table, add the letter “d” above the table, then highlight the “d” and link it to the full page description of the table. Using the Insert>Hyperlink function, select Link To “Place in this document.”

     

    b. Document images should.

    1. Have alt-text or long descriptions, even when designated as a “spacer image.” To add alt text or a long description to your image, right click on the image and select Format Picture.  From the Format Picture dialog box, select the Web tab and add the description.
    2. Be free of background images or watermarks.
    3. Use image text wrapping style “In Line with Text “.
    4. Refrain from using flashing or flickering graphics, since this can cause seizures in epileptics.

     

    1.   Document tables.
    1.  Must be used, to create a tabular structure.  Do not use tabs or spaces to display columns of information.
    2.  Must read from left to right, top to bottom for proper reading order by the Screen reader.
    3.  Must include first row and column headers as appropriate to aid in accessibility.   
    4.  Should consist of single cells and not merged cells. Avoid complex tables.
    5.  Should include a description of the table along with the figure number.
    6.  Should not break across pages.  From the table properties dialog box, select the “Row” tab and ensure the “allow to break across pages” option is unchecked.
    7.  Hide accessibility messages to the screen reader user, for any blank cells in a table.  For example, when a table has an empty cell, include a message inside the cell that conveys to the screen reader that the cell is empty and contains no information.  Next, highlight the message and hide it by making the text the same color as the page.

     

    d.  Notes/additional requirements.

     

    1.     The document file name must be clear, generally limited to 20-30 characters, and make the contents of the file clear in the context in which it is presented.
    2.     The Table of Contents (TOC) may be created using the TOC command, or by using a simple table.

      

    A separate accessible version of a Word document must be provided upon request, when there is no other way to make certain elements accessible.

     

    e.  For more information on creating accessible Microsoft Word, please refer to the Step by Step Remediation of a Word Document presentation online via GSA InSite > Information Technology > Accessibility and Section 508 > 508 Tutorials, Guidance and Checklists.

     

    1.   Accessible powerpoint.   
      1. Include document properties by selecting File>Properties.  In the Summary tab, add the Title of your document, Subject, Author and any keywords to help identify your document.  Your keywords become the meta-tags when your document is posted online. In the Custom tab, add the name, type, and value attributes to your document, such as the language.  For example, under the Custom tab, select language from the drop down list and type in the value as “English”. Select ok to apply the properties.
      2. Images must include a descriptive alt tag, even when designated as a “spacer image.”
      3. Format documents with high contrast in mind.  Black text on a white background provides the highest contrast.
      4. Do not use color to convey information.  For example, “select the blue ball” would not be an appropriate way to convey information since that information would not be accessible to the visually impaired user.
      5. Create bullet or numbered styles as ordered or unordered lists, using the Formats>Bullet and Numbering command. Avoid manual formatting techniques such as hyphens.
      6. When using tables, label row headers and column headers to enhance accessibility.  Make sure row and column headers are clear and self-explanatory.
      7. PowerPoint presentations containing audio should have a text description of the audio content available as part of the slide.  A text description will benefit users who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, as well as those who don't have a sound card or have sound turned off.
      8. When audio is included with the presentation, text captions must be synchronized with the audio.
      9. Make use of pre-defined slide layouts or a master slide template.  This will help in making the slide content more accessible in format, and easier when converting the presentation to HTML format.
      10. Manage your slides using the Outline view.  This approach will ensure that each slide is using the correct slide layout and includes a slide title, creating proper text flow.   
      11. Insert non-complex data tables by selecting the Table>Insert command.
      12. Tables may only be used for the presentation of data and not for slide layout.
      13. Hide accessibility messages for any blank cells in a table.  For example, when a table has an empty cell, include a message inside the cell that conveys to the screen reader that the cell is empty and contains no information.  Next, highlight the message and hide it by making the text the same color as the page.
      14. When you use the screen reader tool to read the text of objects that you created in a Microsoft PowerPoint slide, the screen reader tool may not read the objects in a logical order. This behavior may occur when the objects are not placed in Z-order.  To put the objects in Z-order, open the slide that contains the object(s) and right-click on the first object to be read on the slide.  Select Order>Bring to Front command.  Repeat these steps for any remaining objects on the slide in the order you want the objects to read.
      15. Use the “d” or descriptive link for very long descriptions that would be too long to be used in an “alt-tag” or “long desc.”   D-links are nothing more than the letter “d” used as an anchor tag.  Using it in this manner allows the user of assistive technology to have at their disposal, a method to obtain alternate means to access content.  As an example of describing the extensive details of a table, add the letter “d” above the table, then highlight the “d” and link it to the full page description of the table. Using the Insert>Hyperlink function, select Link To “Place in this document.”
      16. Create charts and graphs by selecting the Insert>Chart command.   
      17. Jaws Commands for PowerPoint Navigation are as follows:
    2. Description

      Command

      Navigation (no cell info)
      Switch panes in Normal view F6
      Switch panes in Normal view in reverse order SHIFT+F6
      Follow selected hyperlink CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER
      View a list of hyperlinks in the current slide INSERT+F7
      Next Object TAB
      Prior Object SHIFT+TAB
      Up a Level ESC
      Prior Slide PAGE UP
      Next Slide PAGE DOWN
      Up one level in Save as or Open dialogs ALT+1
      Back to previous folder in Save as or Open dialog boxes ALT+2
      Reading (no cell info)
      Say Next Screen CTRL+PAGE DOWN
      Say Prior Screen CTRL+PAGE UP
      Retreat Slide Show BACKSPACE
      Read table column by column INSERT+SHIFT+C
      Read table row by row INSERT+SHIFT+R
      Read notes in Normal or Slide Show view CTRL+SHIFT+N
      Information no cell info)
      Say Font INSERT+F
      Say object dimensions and location CTRL+SHIFT+D
      Say PowerPoint version CTRL+INSERT+V
      Say selected object INSERT+SHIFT+DOWN ARROW
      Say shape animation information CTRL+SHIFT+A
      Say slide information CTRL+SHIFT+S
      Say status bar information INSERT+DELETE
      Read spell check dialog INSERT+F7
      Other (no cell info)
      Close Office Assistant

      CTRL+INSERT+F4

      Note: The Office Assistant is not available in Microsoft Office 2007 or later.

      Select an object on current slide CTRL+SHIFT+O
      Toggle table reading method CTRL+SHIFT+T

      End Table

       

       

    3.   Accessible excel.

     

              a.  Helpful Tips for Posting Excel Documents on the Internet:  When worksheets are developed to present a data set, the Excel file may be presented on the web as a Comma Separated Value (CSV) file and not as an XLS file. (The CSV ("Comma Separated Value") file format is often used to exchange data between disparate applications). The file format, as it is used in Microsoft Excel, has become a pseudo standard throughout the industry, even among non-Microsoft platforms.  The CSV link must clearly state that the CSV is a raw data set.  A separate data definition document must accompany all CSV files.  Workbooks posted as .XLS only must include a link to an Excel viewer at http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/downloads/HA010449811033.aspx.

    1. Include document properties by selecting File>Properties.  In the Summary tab, add the Title of your document, Subject, Author and any keywords to help identify your document.  Your keywords become the meta-tags when your document is posted online. In the Custom tab, add the name, type, and value attributes to your document, such as the language.  For example, under the Custom tab, select language from the drop down list and type in the value as “English”. Select ok to apply the properties.
    2. Images must include alternative descriptive text or be indicated as a spacer image if appropriate.
    3. Identify header rows and columns to aid in accessibility.
    4. Do not use color to convey important information.  Use textual annotations instead.
    5. Label row headers and column headers to enhance accessibility.  Make sure row and column headers are clear and self-explanatory.  Avoid ambiguous headers.
    6. Hide accessibility messages for any blank cells.  For example, when a table has an empty cell, include a message inside the cell that conveys to the screen reader that the cell is empty and contains no information.  Next, highlight the message and hide it by making the text the same color as the page.
    7. Name all worksheets to enhance navigation.
    8. Indicate blank cells which may be used for formatting purposes by using the "hidden word" technique.
    9. Place charts and graphs on separate worksheets and include axis information.
    10. b.  An Excel data set that would be presented as a CSV has the following characteristics:
    11.     A single row of headings in the first row.
    12.     The data set contains no formulas.
    13. 4.  Accessible PDFs.
    14. a.  Scanned PDFs versus text PDFs.  Scanned PDFs are essentially a picture of a document.  Just as in a paper copy, the information is not accessible to people who are blind and to many people who have low vision.  However, if made as text, the PDF can be accessible if prepared correctly.
    15. You get a Text PDF by:
    16. Converting the source document to a PDF directly from the source application using a PDF   
    17. software tool such as Adobe Acrobat Professional (Adobe).
    18. Converting scanned (image) PDFs to text with an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) tool.
    19. b.  Distinguishing between scanned and text PDFs.  How do you know if a file is a scanned PDF or a text PDF?
    20. There are a few easy ways:
    21. Use the Text tool in Acrobat and determine if you can highlight text in the document.  If you are not able to, the document has not been rendered as text and assistive technology will not be able to read it.
    22. Go to the OCR function in Acrobat.  If the OCR option is active, apply it to your document to render the text accessible.
    23. Use the Quick Check feature in Acrobat. Go to the Advanced menu, select Accessibility and then Quick Check. If the document is an image (scanned PDF), a message will appear saying the document appears to contain no text.
    24. If you can highlight the text or the Quick Check recognizes text, go to the Text PDFs section.
    25. If you cannot highlight the text or the Quick Check does not recognize text, go to the Scanned PDFs section.

     

               c.  Scanned PDFs.  Although it is better to create the PDF from the source application, sometimes you must begin with a scanned document because you don’t have the electronic source file (Word, Excel, etc.). A scanned document is an image file until it goes through the OCR process.

    1. If you only have a paper copy, scan your document with your scanner set for grayscale scanning and text and images.  If your document is scanned using a setting other then grayscale, the resulting PDF will be color indexed, and Acrobat might interpret the text as image objects and not text.  If this occurs, you must use a graphics program to change the image to grayscale.
    2. Use at least 300 dpi (dots per inch).  The greater the resolution (higher number), the better your results will be.
    3. If you scanned the document as an image PDF or you have an existing scanned PDF, you must render the text with an OCR tool.
    4. d.  Converting a scanned document to text.

               

                    (1) Go to the Document menu, select Recognize Text Using OCR and then Start.

                     Figure 3-4.1. Path for accessing the Acrobat OCR tool

    Path for accessing the Acrobat OCR tool

                       (2) The Recognize Text dialogue box will open.

    Figure 3-4.2. Recognize Text dialogue box

    Recognize Text dialogue box

                       (3) Click the Edit button to configure the settings. A second dialogue box will appear:

    Figure 3-4.3 Recognize Text-Settings dialogue box

    Recognize Text-Settings dialogue box

     

                (4) Define the following fields in the Recognize Text-Settings dialogue box:

                           (a) Primary OCR Language: English (US)

                           (b) PDF Output Style: Formatted Text & Graphics

                           (c) Click OK to close the Recognize Text-Settings dialogue box and return to the Recognize Text dialogue box.

                (5) Click OK to close the Recognize Text dialogue box and start the rendering process.  This might take a few minutes to complete.

                      (6) If you attempt to render a PDF that is already a Text PDF, a message appears stating "Acrobat could not perform recognition (OCR) on the page because this page contains render able text.”  Render able text indicates that text has been detected.

    Figure 3-4.4. Message that appears if you try to render a file that is already a Text PDF

    Message that appears if you try to render a file that is already a Text PDF

    e.  Reading order.  You need to check if the reading order of your document is correct, especially if you used the Add Tags to Document option.  As the name implies, reading order is the order in which assistive technology reads content to users.

              (1) As long as you have checked the Show Page Content Order option on the TouchUp Reading Order dialogue box, Acrobat will display the order in which content will be “read” by assistive technology (see numbers on content boxes in Figure 12).  In the example below, some of the content is out of order (for example, the two text columns will not be read in consecutive order as they may be). This will hinder understanding of the document, so you may fix it.

    Figure 3-4.5. An example of a PDF page with incorrect reading order

     

    An example of a PDF page with incorrect reading order

     

            (2) To fix reading order:

    1.         Select the Show Order Panel button on the TouchUp Reading Order dialogue box (see Figure 3-4.6).
    2.         In the resulting Order Panel, select and drag the item that you need to move to its proper position.

     

    Figure 3-4.6. Order Panel showing the reading order of the document

    Order Panel showing the reading order of the document

         f.  Bookmarks.  Bookmarks allow users to navigate through a PDF by clicking the bookmark names in the Bookmarks panel (see Figure 3-4.7). There are two ways to create new bookmarks.

             (1) Creating Bookmarks Individually

    1.         Select text (or an image or part of an image) that you want to serve as the destination of the bookmark.
    2.         Press Ctrl-B (or click the New Bookmark icon at the top of the Bookmarks tab).
    3.         Repeat as necessary.

             (2)        In the Bookmarks panel, give the bookmark a descriptive title (preferable one that matches headings in the text).

                            Figure 3-4.7. Bookmarks Panel

      Bookmarks Panel

          g. Creating Bookmarks from Document Structure:  If you have a document that has been tagged with headings, you can create bookmarks from those headings in one step.

               (1) From the Bookmarks panel, select Options and then New Bookmarks from Structure.

               (2) In the Structure Elements dialogue box, select the heading levels that you want to use for bookmarks (e.g., heading 1, heading 2).

               (3) Enter a title for the set of bookmarks (e.g., replace “Untitled” with “Contents”).

         h. Document properties.  Section 508 requires authors to specify the language used in the document. The other document properties discussed below help visitors find documents online. Further, the Office of Communications is developing agency document standards that may stipulate their use.

               (1) Go to File and Document Properties.

               (2) On the Advanced tab, make sure the Language field is set to “English US”.

    Figure 3-4.8. Document Properties dialogue box showing the available language options on the Advanced tab.

    Document Properties dialogue box showing the available language options on the Advanced tab

     

       (3) On the Description tab, insert useful entries in the Title, Author, Subject, and Keyword fields.

    Figure 3-4.9. Description tab of the Document Properties dialogue box

    Description tab of the Document Properties dialogue box

         i.  Checking accessibility in PDF.  After you’ve added tags, alternative text, bookmarks, and document properties, you may be ready to check your work.

     

       (1) Check the document with Acrobat’s built-in accessibility checker.  The checker helps identify outstanding problems.  While it can confirm that a compliance step has been taken, it cannot confirm if that step was done well.

             (2) Go to the Advanced menu and select Accessibility and Full Check.

    Figure 3-4.10. Path for running a full check with the Accessibility Checker.

    Path for running a full check with the Accessibility Checker

     

        (3) In the resulting dialogue box, you will see a listing of potential problems or a message indicating that the checker found no problems with the document. Click OK.

    Figure 3-4.11. Sample message generated by the Accessibility Checker.

    Sample message generated by the Accessibility Checker

     

     

                                                                                                                          Appendix A.

                                                                                                                       SYSTEM WIDE SHORTCUT KEYS

     

    Press To
    WINDOWS Display or hide the Start menu.
    CTRL + ESC Display or hide the Start menu (same as WINDOWS).
    CTRL + ALT + DELETE Display Windows Security screen or Windows Task Manager.
    WINDOWS + BREAK Display the System Properties dialog box.
    WINDOWS + D Show the desktop.
    WINDOWS + M Minimize all windows.
    WINDOWS + SHIFT + M Restore minimized windows.
    WINDOWS + E Open My Computer with Windows Explorer.
    WINDOWS + F Search for a file or folder.
    CTRL + WINDOWS + F Search for computers.
    WINDOWS + F1 Display Windows Help.
    WINDOWS + L Lock your computer if you are connected to a network domain, or switch users if you are not connected to a network domain.
    WINDOWS + R Open the Run dialog box.
    ALT + TAB(s) Switch between open windows. While holding the ALT key down, you can press TAB several times to navigate through the system display of each previously used window.
    ALT + SHIFT + TAB(s) Similar to ALT + TAB(s), switch backward between open windows. You can switch between moving backward or forward by holding or releasing the SHIFT key.
    ALT + ESC(s) Cycle the input focus through the windows in the order that they were opened; compare to ALT + TAB.
    ALT + SHIFT + ESC(s) Similar to ALT + ESC(s), cycle focus backward through windows. You can switch between moving backward or forward by holding or releasing the SHIFT key.
    PRINT SCRN Copy an image of the screen.
    ALT + PRINT SCRN Copy an image of the current window.
    Left ALT + SHIFT Switch input languages or keyboard layouts (available and configurable when the user installed multiple keyboard layouts through Regional and Language Options in Control Panel).
    CTRL + SHIFT Switch keyboard layouts or input languages (available and configurable when the user installed multiple keyboard layouts through Regional and Language Options in Control Panel).
    CTRL or left ALT + SHIFT + ~, number (0-9), or ` accent key Use hot key for input languages (available and configurable when the user installed multiple keyboard layouts through Regional and Language Options in Control Panel).
    WINDOWS + V [Speech recognition] Toggle listening status of the microphone.
    WINDOWS + C [Speech recognition] Correct recognized text strings.
    WINDOWS + T [Speech recognition] Toggle speech dictation mode.
    WINDOWS + H [Handwriting] Open or close handwriting pad.
    WINDOWS + number Activate function reserved for OEM use.

     

                                                                                                            System-Wide Accessibility Options and Tools

    Press To
    Right SHIFT for eight seconds straight Switch Filter Keys on and off.
    Left ALT + left SHIFT + PRINT SCRN Switch High Contrast on and off.
    Left ALT + left SHIFT+ NUM LOCK Switch MouseKeys on and off.
    SHIFT five times Switch Sticky Keys on and off.
    NUM LOCK for five seconds straight Switch ToggleKeys on and off.
    WINDOWS + U Open Utility Manager.

     

                                                                                                                General Shortcut Keys for Applications

    Press To
    F1 Display Application Help.
    SHIFT + F1 Display tips help (context-sensitive help) near the selected control.
    APPLICATION Display the shortcut menu for the selected item.
    SHIFT + F10 Display the shortcut menu for the selected item (same as APPLICATION).
    CTRL + C Copy selected items.
    CTRL + X Cut selected items.
    CTRL + V Paste items that have been cut or copied.
    CTRL + Z Undo the last action.
    CTRL + Y Redo the last action.
    ESC Cancel the current task.
    DELETE Delete selected items.

     

                                                                                                                 Navigation and Window Controls

    Press To
    CTRL + F4 Close the active document in applications that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously.
    ALT + F4 Close the active item, or quit the active application.
    CTRL + TAB Move to next pane or palette.
    CTRL + SHIFT + TAB Move to previous pane or palette.
    F6 Move to next pane or palette (same as CTRL + TAB).
    SHIFT + F6 Move to previous pane or palette (same as CTRL + SHIFT + TAB).
    CTRL + F6 Move to next window in a group of related windows (or between MDI document windows).
    CTRL + SHIFT + F6 Move to previous window in a group of related windows (or between MDI document windows).

     

                                                                                                                                Menu Controls

    Press To
    ALT + SPACE Display shortcut menu for the active window.
    ALT + HYPHEN Display shortcut menu for the active child window (MDI application).
    ALT Activate the menu bar and enter menu mode.
    F10 Activate the menu bar and enter menu mode (same as ALT).
    ALT + access key on menu or dialog box selected Activate the menu bar and open corresponding menu to the access key.
    access key [Menu mode] Carry out the corresponding command.
    DOWN ARROW [Menu mode] Open the menu, move to the next menu item, or wrap to the first menu item if focus is on the last menu item.
    UP ARROW [Menu mode] Move to the previous menu item, or wrap to the last menu item if focus is on the first menu item.
    RIGHT ARROW [Menu mode] Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu.
    LEFT ARROW [Menu mode] Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu.

     

                                                                                                                                   Edit Box

    Press To
    HOME Move cursor to beginning of the line.
    END Move cursor to end of the line.
    CTRL + A Select all.
    CTRL + RIGHT ARROW or LEFT ARROW Move cursor to the beginning of the next or previous word.
    CTRL + DOWN ARROW or UP ARROW Move cursor to the beginning of the next or previous paragraph.
    CTRL + HOME Move cursor to the beginning of the edit box content.
    CTRL + END Move cursor to the end of the edit box content.
    SHIFT + cursor movement (ARROW, HOME, or END) Select, or modify the selection.
    SHIFT + CTRL + cursor movement (ARROW, HOME, or END) Select, or modify the selection, by words or blocks of text.
    INSERT Toggle insertion mode.

     

                                                                                                                   Dialog Box and Common Controls

    Control Type Press To
    General TAB Move forward through options.
      SHIFT + TAB Move backward through options.
    Dialog box ALT + access key Select or carry out the corresponding command or control.
      ENTER Carry out the default command of the dialog box or command of the selected control.
      SPACE Toggle the selection status or carry out the selected option or control command.
      ARROW keys Move focus or selection in a group of controls or items.
    Tab control CTRL + TAB Move forward through tabs.
      CTRL + SHIFT + TAB Move backward through tabs.
      CTRL + PAGE DOWN Move forward through tabs (same as CTRL + TAB).
      CTRL + PAGE UP Move backward through tabs (same as CTRL + SHIFT + TAB).
      ARROW keys Move between tabs when focus is on the tab control.
    Combo box F4 Display or hide the items in the active list.
      ALT + DOWN ARROW or UP ARROW Display or hide the items in the active list (same as F4).
      any printable key or keys Move the selection to the item matching prefix letters in the beginning of title.
    List view SPACE Locate new selection and anchor for the item.

     

                                                                                                                               Windows Explorer

    Press To
    F2 Rename selected item.
    F3 Search for a file or folder.
    F4 Display the Address bar list.
    F5 Refresh the active window or reload the document in the active window.
    F6 Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop.
    ALT + RIGHT ARROW Move to next page or folder viewed.
    ALT + LEFT ARROW Move to previous page or folder viewed.
    ALT + ENTER View properties for the selected item.
    SHIFT + DELETE Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin.
    HOME Display the top of the active window.
    END Display the bottom of the active window.
    BACKSPACE View the folder one level up from current folder.

     

                                                                                                                                             Microsoft Office XP

    Press To
    INSERT Toggle the insertion mode.
    F6 Move between task pane and the document window.
    SHIFT + F6 Move backward between task pane and the document window.
    CTRL + F6 Switch to next window when more than one window is open.
    CTRL + SHIFT + F6 Switch to previous window when more than one window is open.
    CTRL + TAB Move focus between menu and tool bars in menu mode.
    F1 Display the Assistant balloon (if Office Assistant is active).
    ALT + SHIFT + F10 Display the menu or message for a Smart Tag near the input focus.
    CTRL + O Open the Open dialog box.
    CTRL + N Open a new blank document.
    CTRL + F Open the Find dialog box.
    CTRL + P Open the Print dialog box.
    CTRL + S Save the document that currently has the input focus.
    CTRL + A Select all.

     

    Appendix B.

     

    AGENCY REPORTING IN THE DOJ SURVEY

    Agency reporting to the Department of Justice survey is provided through GSA’s Office of Government-wide Policy Section 508 Survey.  Information about the survey is posted at http://www.section508.gov/

                                                                                                                             http://www.section508.gov.   

    For more information about the DOJ survey and agency reporting requirements, contact OGP’s IT Accessibility and Workforce Division at 202-501-4906.

    Appendix C.

    ACCESSIBLE FEDERAL FORMS

    Accessible online Federal forms, including the GSA form, Standard Form (SF) or Optional Form (OF), are created by Forms Management team and are readily available through Forms.gov

    (http://www.gsa.gov/forms).  

    a. Custom Form: A custom form is defined as being developed by an office, but not developed as an official form by the Forms Policy and Management Team.  Custom forms have not been designated as a specific form type such as SF, OP or GSA, do not include a form number, and are not added to the Forms library (http://www.forms.gov).  

    b. Optional Form:  An “Optional Form” is a form developed by a Federal agency for use in two or more agencies and approved by GSA for non-mandatory Government-wide use.

     

    c. Standard Form:  A “Standard Form” is a fixed or sequential order of data elements, assigned a Standard Form number, prescribed by a Federal agency through regulation, and approved by GSA for mandatory Government-wide use.

     

    For assistance with development of an accessible form, email the Forms Management team at Forms@gsa.gov.

     

    Appendix D.

    ACCESSIBLE CONFERENCE PREPARATION AND EVENTS

    Event registrations must include a “special needs” option for registrants to identify a special need accommodation for GSA conferences and events.  Special needs may include, but are not limited to, sign language interpreters, wheelchairs, electric scooters, listening devices and looping services for the hearing impaired and individual guides for the blind.  The requiring office is responsible for payment of special accommodations.

     

    Employees can refer to the reference document on “The Key to Accessing Federally Conducted Programs and Activities”, from the Office of Civil Rights (http://www.gsa.gov/gsa/cm_attachments/GSA_DOCUMENT/Interim%20Key%20to%20Accessing%20FCPA%20Handbook_R2Z-i-r_0Z5RDZ-i34K-pR.doc.)  The Section 508 Universe  http://www.section508.gov  includes free course training on accessible conferencing.  This course may be used toward the Section 508 accessibility bi-annual training requirement.

     

                                                                                                                                 Appendix E.

     

                                                                                         OBTAINING INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE ON SECTION 508

     

    GSA’s employees can use the following as a resource to obtain information and assistance on Section 508 related matters:

     

    http://insite.gsa.gov/508

     

    Email the Section 508 Coordinator team at CIO508Help@gsa.gov

     

    Call the Section 508 Help line at 202-208-0799

    Appendix F.

     

    DEFINITIONS

    Access Board:  An independent Federal agency that develops and maintains accessibility requirements, provides technical assistance and training on the standards, and enforces accessibility standards for Federally funded facilities. The official name is the "Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board."

    Accessibility management - The practice of ensuring equal access to and use of all EIT resources by disabled and non-disabled persons.  Accessibility Management must be addressed during the planning and acquisition of all EIT resources to ensure all EIT resources utilized can accommodate persons with disabilities.

    Alternate Formats:  A choice limited to one of two or more possibilities.  An alternate format may include Braille, ASCII text, large print, recorded audio, and electronic format.

     

    API: Application Program Interface

    Assistive Technology (AT):  Any item, piece of equipment, or system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is commonly used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of persons with disabilities. Often referred to as Adaptive Technology, a device or software that substitutes for or enhances the function of some impaired ability.

    Buy Accessible Evaluation Guide:  This is a supplemental guidance tool produced by the BuyAccessible Wizard (BAW). This guide is available for Government buyers to evaluate various proposals based on commercial availability of their applicable provisions as determined by the Wizard.

    Buy Accessible Solicitation Template:  The template serves as a documentation tool produced by the BuyAccessible Wizard, to assist Federal contracting and procurement officials in producing Section 508 language for their solicitations for EIT products and services. The Solicitation Template provides specific example text recommended to be included in the solicitation documentation.

    Captions (open, closed):  Visual display of spoken dialogue and other important audio information as printed words. Open captions are displayed automatically; closed captions are displayed only when selected by the user.

    Contracting Officer:  A Person with the authority to enter into, administer, and/or terminate contracts and make related determinations and findings.

    Electronic and Information Technology (EIT):  Electronic and information technology as defined in the FAR, Subpart 2.1 definitions has the same meaning as “information technology”, except EIT also includes any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment that is used in the creation, conversion, or duplication of data or information. In addition to IT as defined in the FAR, EIT includes:

    software programs, web based intranet and internet information and applications, telecommunication products, information kiosk and transaction machines, websites, multimedia (including video and pictures), office equipment, computers, copiers and fax machines, electronic forms and documents, and

    other related resources defined by the Administrator.

    Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR):  The official document of policies and procedures for acquisition that is used by all executive agencies.  The FAR was established to codify uniform policies for acquisition of supplies and services by executive agencies.  Statutory authorities to issue and revise the FAR have been delegated to the Procurement Executives in DOD, GSA and NASA.

     

    Form:  A “Form” is a fixed arrangement of captioned spaces designed for gathering, organizing, and transmitting prescribed information quickly and efficiently.  The term Form is regularly used to describe any collection of information, whether it is electronic or hardcopy.  In government, we refer to these types of data collection as Forms.  Form types include GSA Forms (GSA), Standard Forms (SF) and Optional Forms (OF).

     

    Information Technology:   As defined in the FAR Subpart 2.1 definitions, information technology is any equipment, or interconnected system(s) or subsystem(s) of equipment, that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, analysis, evaluation, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information by the agency.  Information technology includes computers, ancillary equipment such as imaging peripherals, input, output, and storage devices necessary for security and surveillance, peripheral equipment designed to be controlled by the central processing unit of a computer, software, firmware and similar procedures, services including support services and related resources. The term “information technology” does not include any equipment that is acquired by a contractor incidental to a contract; or contains imbedded information technology that is used as an integral part of the product, but the principal function of which is not the acquisition, storage, analysis, evaluation, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information.

    Internet:  An internet site, such as GSA.gov contains information published online and accessible to all users of the Internet.

    Intranet:  Intranet sites are hosted from the GSA network and are only accessible for GSA staff within the GSA network framework through means such as remote access service or virtual private network connections.

    Remediate:  To fix or repair to ensure conformance to the Section 508 technical standards.

    Remote Access Service (RAS) – any combination of hardware and software to enable the remote access to tools or information that typically reside on a network of IT devices.

    Requiring Official - the program manager or other Government staff delegated with responsibility for developing EIT requirements.

    Section 508 Compliance:  A term used to indicate adherence to and implementation of the Section 508 technical standards.

    Sticky Keys:  A feature of Windows operating system (and possibly others). It is an accessibility feature created by Microsoft to aid users who have physical disabilities. Sticky Keys allows the user to press a modifier key, such as Shift, Ctrl, Alt, or the Windows key, and have it remain active until another key is pressed.

    TTY:  May refer to a Teletypewriter or Teletype, a typewriter with an electronic communication channel.  More specifically: An alternative name for a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)

    Tele-typewriter:   An electromechanical typewriter that either transmits or receives messages coded in electrical signals carried by telegraph or telephone wires.

    Undue Burden:  Significant difficulty or expense. A possible exception to the Section 508 requirements.  When there is an undue burden, the statute requires an alternative means of access to be provided to persons with disabilities.

    VCO: Voice Carry Over

    Virtual Private Network (VPN): a computer network that is implemented in an additional software layer (overlay) on top of an existing larger network for the purpose of creating a private scope of computer communications or providing a secure extension of a private network into an insecure network such as the Internet.

    Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) - the vendor self-representation of their product(s) or service(s) conformance to the Section 508 technical standards.

     

    Appendix G.

    REFERENCES:

    Access-Board. (n.d.). Section 508 Homepage: Electronic and Information Technology. Retrieved March 12, 2009 from http://www.access-board.gov/508.htm

    Accessible Telecommunications Product Design Technical Assistance. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2009 from http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/telecomm-course.htm

    Barrett, D. Testing for Web Accessibility Compliance Under Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2009 from http://www.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/assisttesting.html

    California Polytechnic State University. (2009). 508 In Depth. Retrieved from http://warc.calpoly.edu/accessibility/508indepth/index.html

    Cornell University Library PSEC Documentation Committee. (2002). APA Citation Style. Retrieved from Cornell University: Citation Management. http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa

    ETSI ES 201 381. (1998). Retrieved March 12, 2009 from http://www.tiresias.org/research/guidelines/keys.htm  

    FCC Hearing Aid Compatibility Act of 1988. (n.d.). Retrieved March 4, 2009 from http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Common_Carrier/FAQ/faq_hac.html

    Gallaudet University. (n.d.) Technology Access Program. Retrieved from http://tap.gallaudet.edu/Text/

    GSA Buy Accessible Wizard. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2009 from http://www.buyaccessible.gov

    IBM. (2001) Software Checklist. Retrieved February 18, 2009 from  http://www.ibm.com/able/guidelines/software/accesssoftware.html

    Information Technology Technical Assistance and Training Center. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2009.  http://www.ittatc.org

    Media Access Group at WGBH. (n.d.). Captioning and Video Description. Retrieved January 18, 2009 from http://main.wgbh.org/wgbh/access/access.html

    National Center for Accessible Media. (n.d.). Retrieved January 10, 2009 from http://ncam.wgbh.org.

    Section 4.27.4 of the ADA Accessibility Guidelines. (n.d.). Retrieved March 2009 from http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/reg3a.html

    Section 508.gov. (2001). Final FAR Rule For Implementing Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://www.Section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=13

    Section 508.gov. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved September 8, 2009 from http://www.section508.gov

    Section 508.gov. (n.d.). Guide to the Section 508 Standards for Electronic and Information Technology. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/standards.htm#Subpart _b

    Television Decoder Circuitry Act of 1990. (n.d.).  Retrieved January 2008 from http://www.access-board.gov/Sec508/guide/1194.24-decorderact.htm

    University of Wisconsin Trace Research Center. (2004). Access Board's 508 Final Rules and Guides. Retrieved from http://trace.wisc.edu/docs/508-collation/06092004v1.1.shtml

    U.S. Access Board. (n.d.). Accessibility Standards. Retrieved July 14, 2008 from http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/standards.htm.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). HHS Standards, Guidelines and Guidance. Retrieved January 2009 from http://www.hhs.gov/web/policies/standards/index.html

    World Wide Web Consortium. (1998). Web Accessibility Initiative. Retrieved January 2009 from http://www.w3c.org/wai/

    World Wide Web Consortium. (1998). Synchronized Multimedia. Retrieved January 2009 from http://www.w3.org/audiovideo