The William H. Natcher Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Bowling Green, Kentucky, is a three-story Renaissance Revival white limestone building with a rusticated base. Squared limestone pilasters of minimum projection define the bays. Two bands of molding separate the rusticated base from the rest of the building. Below the limestone parapet is a bracketed, denticulated cornice. The frieze is unembellished except for simple limestone panels at the cap of each slightly projected pilaster. The central door opening at the original east elevation entry is more ornate including a transom which is detailed with high relief carvings of an American spread Eagle resting on a bracketed cartouche. The entry is set within a recessed limestone surround, surmounted by a radiating voussoir with keystone.
Windows on the east elevation are divided into five bays. The central bay contains monumental windows at the second and third floor levels, lighting the grand staircase. First and second floor windows are two over two with a two-light transom, and third floor windows are two over two as well. The wood windows are slightly recessed within a limestone surround with a slightly projected keystone and appear to be original. The south elevation has the secondary (now main) entry to the building. The two central first floor apertures of the 1912 building are set within recessed limestone surrounds with radiating voussoirs and keystones. The easternmost of these apertures contains the Center Street entry door. Cast iron lamp posts on granite bases flank the entry door. The
remainder of the south elevation is the same as the east, except where the 1941 addition carves through the molded band of glyphs above the first floor level, and the simple molded band which forms the cornice of the addition. The north elevation is the same as the south, with the projecting addition to the west.
The lobby, courtroom, and main staircase are significant original interior features. Though the lobby has been significantly altered, it retains the plaster panel ceiling, marble wainscot, and a mural on the south wall. The mural entitled "The Longhunters Discover Daniel Boone" (FA430) was painted in 1942. The courtroom is nearly original in appearance, retaining the oak paneling and original judge's bench and desks. The most distinctive feature of the building, however, is the main staircase. The curved marble stair is at the center of the east side of the building. It begins as a double return stairway leading to a mezzanine landing where it winds into one central stairwell at the second floor level. The staircase then winds into a side stairwell leading to the third floor level. The marble wainscot matches the curvature of the staircase walls. The grand stair lobby is further enhanced by its full three-story height and monumental windows.