Installing New Brass, Cast-Iron And Steel Ornamental Handrails And Railing Systems To Match Historic

Procedure code:
Tacoma Union Station Courthouse, Tacoma, Wa
Ornamental Handrails & Railings
Last Modified:




    A.   This procedure includes guidance on replacing
         deteriorated handrails and railing systems with new or
         original factory refurbished brass, steel or iron
         ornamental rails to match the historic.

    B.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).


    A.   American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100
         Barr Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, (610) 832-9585
         or FAX (610) 832-9555.

    B.   American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 1000 - 16th
         Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036.

    C.   Copper Development Association (CDA), Box 1840, Greenwich
         Office Park 2, Greenwich, CT 06836.

    D.   Steel Structures Painting Council, 4400 Fifth Avenue,
         Pittsburgh, PA 15213.

    E.   National Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers
         (NAAMM), 221 N. LaSalle Street, Chicago, IL 60601.


    A.   Definitions in ASTM E 985 for railing-related terms apply
         to this section.


    A.   General:  In engineering handrail and railing systems to
         withstand structural loads indicated, determine allowable
         design working stresses of railing materials based on the

    B.   For cold-formed structural steel:  AISI "Specification
         for Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members".

    C.   For copper alloys use a safety factor of 1.65 applied to
         minimum yield strength of alloy.

    D.   Structural Performance of Handrails and Railing Systems:
         Engineer, fabricate, and install handrails and railing
         systems to comply with requirements of ASTM E 985 for
         structural performance.

    E.   Control of Corrosion:  Prevent galvanic action and other
         forms of corrosion by using metals that are compatible
         with one another.  In some instances the corrosion can be
         prevented by inserting a plastic insulator between the
         dissimilar materials.

    F.   Thermal Movements:  Allow for thermal movement resulting
         from the following maximum change (range) in ambient
         temperature in the design, fabrication, and installation
         of handrails and railings to prevent buckling, opening up
         of joints, and over-stressing of components, connections,
         and other detrimental effects.  Base design calculation
         on actual surface temperatures of materials due to both
         solar heat gain and nighttime sky heat loss.


    A.   General:  Submit the following in accordance with
         Conditions of Contract and Division 1 Specification

    B.   Product data for each type of product specified.

    C.   Shop drawings showing fabrication and installation of
         handrails and railings including plans, elevations,
         sections, details of components, and attachments to other
         units of Work.


    A.   Single-Source Responsibility:  Obtain handrails and
         railing systems of each type and material from a single

    B.   Engineering Responsibility:  Engineer handrails and
         railing systems by qualified professional engineer
         legally authorized to practice in jurisdiction where
         Project is located.

    C.   Engineer Qualifications:  Professional engineer legally
         authorized to practice in jurisdiction where project is
         located and experienced in providing engineering services
         of the kind indicated for handrails and railings similar
         in material, design, and extent to that indicated for
         this Project and that have a record of successful in-
         service performance.

    D.   Restoration Specialist:  Work must be performed by a firm
         having not less than 5 years successful experience in
         comparable restoration projects and employing personnel
         skilled in the restoration processes and operations


    A.   Storage and Protection:  Store handrails and railing
         systems in clean, dry location, away from uncured
         concrete and masonry, protected against damage of any
         kind.  Cover with waterproof paper, tarpaulin, or
         polyethylene sheeting; allow for air circulation inside
         the covering.


    A.   Field Measurements:  Where handrails and railings are
         indicated to fit to other construction, check actual
         dimensions of other construction by accurate field
         measurements before fabrication; show recorded
         measurements on final shop drawings.  Coordinate
         fabrication schedule with construction progress to avoid
         delay of Work.


    A.   Mount handrails only on completed surfaces.  Do not
         support handrails temporarily by any means not satisfying
         structural performance requirements.



    A.   Stan Chemical Company
         401 Berlin Street
         East Berlin, CT 06023


    NOTE:  Provide metal forms and types that comply with
    requirements of referenced standards and that are free from
    surface blemishes where exposed to view in the finished unit.
    Exposed-to-view surfaces exhibiting pitting, seam marks,
    roller marks, stains, discolorations, or other imperfections
    on finished units are not acceptable.

    A.   Copper Alloys:  Provide CDA copper alloy of type and form
         indicated to comply with the following requirements:

         1.   Extruded Brass Shapes:  Alloy suitable to produce
              US3 finish.

         2.   Seamless Brass Tube:  Alloy suitable to produce US3

         3.   Composition Brass Castings:  Alloy suitable to
              produce US3 finish.

    B.   Steel and Iron:  Provide steel and iron in the form
         indicated complying with the following requirements:

         1.   Cold-Formed Steel Tubing:  ASTM A 500, grade B,
              unless otherwise indicated or required by
              structural loads.

         2.   For exterior installations and as required, provide
              tubing with hot-dip galvanized coating per ASTM A

    C.   Steel Plates, Shapes, and Bars:  ASTM A 36.

    D.   Malleable Iron Castings:  ASTM A 47, grade 32510.


    A.   Grout and Anchoring Cement:

         1.   Non-shrink Nonmetallic Grout:  Premixed, factory-
              packaged, nonstaining, noncorrosive, nongaseous
              grout.  Provide grout specifically recommended by
              manufacturer for interior and exterior applications
              of type specified in this procedure such as "Bonsal
              Construction Grout" (W. R Bonsal Co.), "Diamond-
              Crete Grout" (Concrete Service Materials Co.),
              "Euco N-S Grout" (Euclid Chemical Co.), or approved

    B.   Erosion-Resistant Anchoring Cement:  Factory-packaged,
         nonstaining, hydraulic controlled expansion cement
         formulation for mixing with water at Project site to
         create pourable anchoring, patching, and grouting
         compound.  Provide formulation that is resistant to
         erosion from water exposure without need for protection
         by a sealer or waterproof coating and is recommended for
         exterior use by manufacturer.

    C.   Paint:

         1.   Galvanizing Repair Paint:  High-zinc-dust-content
              paint for regalvanizing welds in galvanized steel,
              with dry film containing not less than 94 percent
              zinc dust by weight, and complying with SSPC-Paint-

         2.   Zinc Chromate Primer

    D.   Fasteners:

         1.   Fasteners for Anchoring Railings to Other
              Construction:  Select fasteners of the type, grade,
              and class required to produce connections that are
              suitable for anchoring railing to other types of
              construction indicated and capable of withstanding
              design loadings.  

              a.   For steel railings and fittings use plated
                   fasteners complying with ASTM B 633, Class
                   Fe/Zn 25 for electrodeposited zinc coating.

              b.   For copper alloy railings provide fasteners
                   fabricated from same base metal as railing
                   components or from type 304.

         2.   Fasteners for Interconnecting Railing Components:
              Use fasteners of same basic metal as the fastened
              metal, unless otherwise indicated.  Do not use
              metals that are corrosive or incompatible with
              materials joined.

              a.   Provide concealed fasteners for
                   interconnection of handrail and railing
                   components and for their attachment to other
                   work except where exposed fasteners are

              b.   Provide Phillips flat-head machine screws for
                   exposed fasteners, unless otherwise indicated.

         3.   Cast-In-Place and Post-installed Anchors in
              Concrete: Cast-in-place anchors and expansion
              anchors fabricated from corrosion-resistant
              materials with capability to sustain, without
              failure, load imposed within a safety factor of 4,
              as determined by testing per ASTM E 488, conducted
              by a qualified independent testing laboratory.


    A.   General:  Fabricate handrails and railing systems to
         comply with requirements indicated for design,
         dimensions, details, finish, and member sizes, including
         wall thickness of hollow members, post spacings, and
         anchorage, but not less than that required to support
         structural loads.

    B.   Preassemble railing systems in shop to greatest extent
         possible to minimize field splicing and assembly.
         Disassemble units only as necessary for shipping and
         handling limitations.  Clearly mark units for reassembly
         and coordinated installation.  Use connections that
         maintain structural value of joined pieces.  Clearly mark
         units for reassembly and coordinated installation.

    C.   Form changes in direction of railing members by insertion
         of prefabricated elbow fittings, by radius bends of
         radius as designated, and by bending, as required.

    D.   Form simple and compound curves by bending members in
         jigs to produce uniform curvature for each repetitive
         configuration required; maintain profile of member
         throughout entire bend without buckling, twisting,
         cracking, or otherwise deforming exposed surfaces of
         handrail and railing components.

    E.   Welded Connections:  Fabricate railing systems and
         handrails for connection of members by welding.  For
         connections made during fabrication, weld corners and
         seams continuously to comply with the following:

         1.   Use materials and methods that minimize distortion
              and develop strength and corrosion resistance of
              base metals.

         2.   Obtain fusion without undercut or overlap.

         3.   Remove welding flux immediately.

         4.   At exposed connections, finish exposed welds and
              surfaces smooth and blended so that no roughness
              shows after finishing and contour of welded surface
              match those adjacent.

    F.   Non-welded Connections:  Fabricate railing systems and
         handrails for connection of members by means of railing
         manufacturer's standard concealed mechanical fasteners
         and fittings unless otherwise indicated.  Fabricate
         members and fittings to produce flush, smooth, rigid,
         hairline joints.

         1.   Fabricate splice joints for field connection using
              epoxy structural adhesive where this represents
              manufacturer's standard splicing method.

    G.   Brackets, Flanges, Fittings, and Anchors:  Provide
         manufacturer's standard wall brackets, flanges,
         miscellaneous fittings, and anchors for connection of
         handrail and railing members to other construction.

    H.   Provide inserts and the anchorage devices for connecting
         handrails and railing systems to concrete or masonry
         work.  Fabricate anchorage devices capable of
         withstanding loadings imposed by handrails and railing
         systems.  Coordinate anchorage devices with supporting

    I.   For existing cast iron posts to be reset in concrete:
         Examine existing anchors to determine if suitable for
         reuse.  Do not reuse unless in good condition.  Provide
         new anchors where necessary of same configurations as

    J.   Shear and punch metals cleanly and accurately.  Remove
         burrs from exposed cut edges.

    K.   Ease exposed edges to a radius of approximately 1/32
         inch, unless otherwise indicated.  Form bent-metal
         corners to smallest radius possible without causing grain
         separation or otherwise impairing work.

    L.   Cut, reinforce, drill, and tap miscellaneous metal work
         as indicated to receive finish hardware, screws, and
         similar items.

    M.   For handrails and railing systems that are exposed to
         exterior or to moisture from condensation or other
         sources, provide weepholes or other means for evacuation
         of entrapped water in hollow sections of railing members.

    N.   Fabricate joints that will be exposed to weather in a
         manner to exclude water.

    O.   Close exposed ends of handrail and railing members by use
         of manufacturer's standard prefabricated end fittings.

    P.   Provide wall returns at ends of wall-mounted handrails,
         unless otherwise indicated.  Close ends of returns unless
         clearance between end of the railing and wall is 1/4 inch
         or less.

    Q.   Fillers:  Provide steel sheet or plate filler of
         thickness and size indicated or required to support
         structural loads of handrails where needed to transfer
         wall bracket loads through wall finishes to structural
         supports.  Size fillers to suit wall finish thicknesses.
         Size fillers to produce adequate bearing to prevent
         bracket rotation and over-stressing of substrate.

    R.   Finishes:

         1.   Comply with NAAMM  "Metal Finishes Manual" for
              recommendations relative to application and
              designations of finishes.

         2.   Appearance of Finished Work:  Variations in
              appearance of abutting or adjacent pieces are not
              acceptable if they are within 1/2 of the range of
              approved samples.  Noticeable variations in the
              same piece are not acceptable.  Variations in
              appearance of other components are acceptable if
              they are within range of approved samples and they
              are assembled or installed to minimize contrast.

    S.   Copper Alloy Finishes:  Finish designations prefixed by
         "CDA" conform with the system established by the Copper
         Development Association for designating copper alloy
         finish systems.

         1.   Buffed Finish:  CDA M21 (Mechanical Finish:
              buffed, smooth specular).
         2.   Buffed Finish, Lacquered:  CDA M21 Mechanical
              Finish:  buffed, smooth specular; Coating:  clear
              organic, air dry, such as "Incralac" (Stan Chemical
              Company), or approved equal.

              a.   Apply by air-spray in 2 coats per
                   manufacturer's directions, with interim
                   drying, to a total thickness of 1.0 mil.

    T.   Galvanized Finish:

         1.   General:  Hot-dip galvanize items indicated to be
              galvanized to comply with ASTM A 123 for
              galvanizing iron and steel products made form
              rolled, pressed, and forged steel shapes, castings,
              plates, bars, and strips.

         2.   For exterior steel railings and handrails formed
              from steel tubing with galvanized finish, galvanize
              fittings, brackets, fasteners, sleeves, and other
              ferrous components.

         3.   Factory-Primed Finish:  Apply air-dried primer
              immediately following cleaning and pretreatment, to
              provide a minimum dry film thickness of 2.0 mils
              per applied coat, to surfaces that will be exposed
              after assembly and installation and to concealed,
              non-galvanized surfaces.

         4.   Apply shop primer to uncoated surfaces of handrails
              and railing components, except those with
              galvanized finish or to be embedded in concrete or
              masonry, unless otherwise indicated.  Comply with
              requirements of SSPC-PA 1 "Paint Application
              Specification No. 1" for shop painting.

              Shop Primer:  Manufacturer's or Fabricator's
              standard, fast-curing, lead-free, "universal"
              primer, selected for resistance to normal
              atmospheric corrosion, for compatibility with
              substrate and field-applied finish paint system
              indicated, and for capability to provide a sound
              foundation for field-applied topcoats despite
              prolonged exposure.



    A.   Coordinate setting drawings, diagrams, templates,
         instructions, and directions for installation of
         anchorages, such as sleeves, concrete inserts, anchor
         bolts, and miscellaneous items having integral anchors,
         that are to be embedded in concrete as masonry
         construction.  Coordinate delivery of such items to
         project site.


    A.   General:

         1.   Fit exposed connections accurately together to form
              tight, hairline joints.

         2.   Cutting, Fitting, and Placement:  Perform cutting,
              drilling, and fitting required for installation of
              handrails and railings.  Set handrails and railing
              accurately in location, alignment, and elevation,
              measured from established lines and levels and free
              from rack.  TAKE CARE SO AS NOT TO DAMAGE ADJACENT

         3.   Do not weld, cut, or abrade surfaces of handrails
              and railing components that have been coated or
              finished after fabrication and are intended for
              field connection by mechanical or other means
              without further cutting or fitting.

         4.   Set posts plumb within a tolerance of 1/4 inch in
              12 feet.

         5.   Align rails so that variations from level for
              horizontal members and from parallel with rake of
              steps and ramps for sloping members do not exceed
              1/4 inch in 12 feet.

         6.   Field Welding:  Comply with the following

              a.   Use materials and methods that minimize
                   distortion and develop strength and corrosion
                   resistance of base metals.

              b.   Obtain fusion without undercut or overlap.

              c.   Remove welding flux immediately.

              d.   At exposed connections, finish exposed welds
                   and surfaces smooth and blended so that no
                   roughness shows after finishing and contour of
                   welded surface matches those adjacent.

         7.   Corrosion Protection:  Coat concealed surfaces of
              concrete, masonry, wood, or dissimilar metals,
              which will be in contact with grout, with a heavy
              coat of bituminous paint or zinc chromate primer.

         8.   Adjust handrails and railing systems prior to
              anchoring to ensure matching alignment at abutting
              joints.  Space posts at interval indicated but not
              less than that required by structural loads.  MATCH

         9.   Fastening to In-Place Construction:  Use anchorage
              devices and fasteners where necessary for securing
              handrails and railing to in-place construction.

    B.   Railing Connections:

         1.   Welded Connections:  Use fully welded joints for
              permanently connecting railing components by
              welding.  Cope or butt components to provide 100
              percent contact or use manufacturer's standard
              fitting designed for this purpose.

         2.   Non-Welded Connections:  Use manufacturer's
              standard mechanical or adhesive joints for
              permanently connecting railing components.  Use
              wood blocks and padding to prevent damage to
              railing members and fittings.  Seal recessed holes
              of exposed lock screws using plastic filler cement
              colored to match finish of handrails and railing

    C.   Anchoring Posts:

         1.   Anchor posts in concrete by means of pipe sleeves
              preset and anchored into concrete.  After posts
              have been inserted into sleeves, fill annular space
              between post and sleeve solid with the following
              anchoring material, mixed and placed to comply with
              anchoring material manufacturer's directions.

              a.   Non-shrink, nonmetallic grout:  Exterior
                   anchors, if in good condition, may be reused
                   if suitable.  To be set in new concrete

              b.   Interior posts may be set in existing anchor
                   holes if suitable.

         2.   Cover interior anchorage joint with a flange of the
              same metal as post; attach to post by welding after
              placement of anchoring material.

         3.   Leave exterior anchorage joint exposed, wipe off
              surplus anchoring material, and leave 1/8-inch
              buildup, sloped away from post.  For installations
              exposed on exterior or to flow of water, seal
              anchoring material to comply with grout
              manufacturer's directions.

         4.   For steel railings, weld flanges to post and bolt
              to metal supporting surfaces.

    D.   Anchoring Rail Ends:

         1.   Anchor rail ends to concrete and masonry with
              required flanges, connected to rail ends and
              anchored into wall construction with post-installed
              anchors and bolts.

         2.   Anchor rail ends to metal surfaces with required
              flanges.  Weld flanges to rail ends, and bolt
              flanges to metal surfaces.

    E.   Attachment of Handrails to Walls: INSPECT AND RE-USE

         1.   Attach handrails to wall with wall brackets and end
              fittings.  Provide bracket with not less than 1-
              1/2-inch clearance from inside face of handrail and
              finished wall surface.

         2.   Locate brackets as indicated or, if not indicated,
              at spacing required to support structural loads.

         3.   Secure wall brackets and wall return fittings to
              building construction.  Use type of bracket with
              flange tapped for concealed anchorage to threaded
              hanger bolt.

         4.   For concrete and solid masonry anchorage, use
              drilled-in expansion shield and either concealed
              hanger bolt or exposed lab bolt, as applicable.

         5.   For hollow masonry anchorage, use toggle bolts with
              square heads.

         6.   For steel framed gypsum board assemblies, fasten
              brackets directly to steel framing or concealed
              anchors using self-tapping screws of size and type
              required to support structural loads.


    A.   Protect finishes of railing systems and handrails from
         damage during cleaning period by use of temporary
         protective coverings approved by railing manufacturer.
         Remove protective covering at time of Substantial

    B.   Restore finishes damaged during installation and
         construction period so that no evidence remains of
         correction work.  Return items that cannot be refinished
         in the field to the shop; make required alterations and
         refinish entire unit or provide new units.

                         END OF SECTION
Last Reviewed 2012-02-24