Window Vulnerability

In the wake of the 1995 terrorist bombing of the A.P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, the President of the United States responded to the threat of global terrorism by directing the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and U.S. Marshall's Service to conduct a vulnerability assessment of federal facilities.

The product of that effort was a blast vulnerability assessment that included suggestions and recommendations for improving the security and reducing the vulnerabilities of federal facilities. Consistent with these findings, GSA developed a detailed Security Criteria to provide performance-based guidance to designers and to ensure that security becomes an integral part of the planning, design, and construction of new federal facilities and major modernization projects. The criteria has been incorporated into the Department of Homeland Security Committee Risk Management Process.

The primary objectives of a blast vulnerability assessment study are:

  • To determine the extent and type of potential structural and facade damage as a result of blast-induced loadings.
  • To estimate the likelihood of loss and the extent of injury to people and other assets.
  • To explore hazard mitigation options such as possible site, structural, and facade upgrades/enhancements (if needed) that will provide mitigation for meeting the project-specific ISC Security Design Criteria requirements.

For more information, contact Bill Earl (

Last Reviewed: 2023-04-13